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- Three-quarters of depressed cancer patients do not receive treatment for depression; new approach could transform care
Three papers reveal that around three-quarters of cancer patients who have major depression are not currently receiving treatment for depression, and that a new integrated treatment program is strikingly more effective at reducing depression and improving quality of life than current care.
- Inside the Teenage Brain: New Studies Explain Risky Behavior
It’s common knowledge that teenage boys seem predisposed to risky behaviors. Now, a series of new studies is shedding light on specific brain mechanisms that help to explain what might be going on inside juvenile male brains.
- Social class makes a difference in how children tackle classroom problems
Social class can account for differences in how parents coach their children to manage classroom challenges, a study shows. Such differences can affect a child's education by reproducing inequalities in the classroom. With the widening gaps in educational outcomes between social classes, the researcher suggested that this study could help schools become more aware of these differences and make moves to reduce the inequalities.
- First study of brain activation in MS using fNIRS
Using functional near infrared spectroscopy, researchers showed differential brain activation patterns between people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls. This is first MS study to examine brain activation using fNIRS during a cognitive task.
- Stop and listen: Study shows how movement affects hearing
When we want to listen carefully to someone, the first thing we do is stop talking. The second thing we do is stop moving altogether. The interplay between movement and hearing has a counterpart deep in the brain. A new study used optogenetics to reveal exactly how the motor cortex, which controls movement, can tweak the volume control in the auditory cortex, which interprets sound.
- Self-deceived individuals deceive others better
Over-confident people can fool others into believing they are more talented than they actually are, a study has found. These 'self-deceived' individuals could be more likely to get promotions and reach influential positions in banks and other organizations. And these people are more likely to overestimate other people's abilities and take greater risks, possibly creating problems for their organizations.
- Orphaned children can do just as well in institutions, study concludes
The removal of institutions or group homes will not lead to better child well-being and could even worsen outcomes for some orphaned and separated children, according to new findings from a three-year study across five low- and middle-income countries. Children in institutions are as healthy and, in some ways, healthier than those in family-based care, according to the study.
- Stone-tipped spears lethal, may indicate early cognitive and social skills
Attaching a stone tip on to a wooden spear shaft was a significant innovation for early modern humans living around 500,000 years ago. However, it was also a costly behavior in terms of time and effort to collect, prepare and assemble the spear. Researchers conducted controlled experiments to learn if there was a 'wounding' advantage between using a wooden spear or a stone-tipped spear.
- Xenon exposure shown to erase traumatic memories
Xenon gas, used in humans for anesthesia and diagnostic imaging, has the potential to be a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder and other memory-related disorders, researchers report. "We know from previous research that each time an emotional memory is recalled, the brain actually restores it as if it were a new memory. With this knowledge, we decided to see whether we could alter the process by introducing xenon gas immediately after a fear memory was reactivated," explained an author.
- Alcohol-dependence gene linked to neurotransmitter
Scientists have solved the mystery of why a specific signaling pathway can be associated with alcohol dependence. The new research shows the gene, Nf1, regulates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that lowers anxiety and increases relaxation feelings.
- emotional association of memories changed by researchers
By manipulating neural circuits in the brain of mice, scientists have altered the emotional associations of specific memories. The research reveals that the connections between the part of the brain that stores contextual information about an experience and the part of the brain that stores the emotional memory of that experience are malleable.
- Marijuana compound may offer treatment for Alzheimer's disease
Extremely low levels of the compound in marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a recent study from neuroscientists shows.
- Neuroscientists reverse memories' emotional associations: Brain circuit that links feelings to memories manipulated
Most memories have some kind of emotion associated with them: Recalling the week you just spent at the beach probably makes you feel happy, while reflecting on being bullied provokes more negative feelings. A new study from neuroscientists reveals the brain circuit that controls how memories become linked with positive or negative emotions.
- Flexing the brain: Why learning tasks can be difficult
Learning a new skill is easier when it is related to an ability we already have. For example, a trained pianist can learn a new melody easier than learning how to hit a tennis serve. Scientists have discovered a fundamental constraint in the brain that may explain why this happens.
- Parents, listen next time your baby babbles
Parents who try to understand their baby's babbling let their infants know they can communicate, which leads to children forming complex sounds and using language more quickly. The study's results showed infants whose mothers attended more closely to their babbling vocalized more complex sounds and develop language skills sooner.
- Impact of cultural diversity in brain injury research
The implications for cultural diversity and cultural competence in brain injury research and rehabilitation has been the focus of recent study. Risk for brain injury is higher among minorities, as is the likelihood for poorer outcomes. More research is needed to reduce health disparities and improve outcomes among minorities with brain injury, experts say.
- Group identity emphasized more by those who just make the cut
People and institutions who are marginal members of a high-status or well-esteemed group tend to emphasize their group membership more than those who are squarely entrenched members of the group, according to new research.
- New study throws into question long-held belief about depression
New evidence puts into doubt the long-standing belief that a deficiency in serotonin -- a chemical messenger in the brain -- plays a central role in depression. Scientists report that mice lacking the ability to make serotonin in their brains (and thus should have been 'depressed' by conventional wisdom) did not show depression-like symptoms.
- Potential therapy for incurable Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease found
A potential new treatment approach for hereditary neurological disorder, the incurable Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, has been found by researchers. Patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A harbour an extra copy of the PMP22 gene which leads to the overproduction of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), a key component of myelin.
- Student debt growing, number of university financial education programs still deficient
A financial planner finds most universities are lacking a financial education program, and outlines in a new article the different types of successful programs and how to get started.
- Shy people use Facebook longer but disclose less, research reveals
It’s not the person posting 10,000 pictures a week of their cat who’s the big-time Facebook user. Instead, it’s the quiet ones who are logging in longer, says research.
- Gifts that generate gratitude keep customers loyal
They promise us discounts, upgrades and freebies in exchange for our allegiance -- so why are shoppers failing to stay faithful to customer loyalty programs? Despite major retailers investing tens of millions of dollars a year into loyalty programs, they are a dying breed, with customers struggling to see the benefits of signing up, according to research.
- Factors predicting functional recovery of upper limb after peripheral nerve injuries
A study by Dr. Bo He and co-workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China showed that predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up, and the nerve injured is the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery.
- Baicalin suppresses iron accumulation after substantia nigra injury
Baicalin down-regulated iron concentration in a recent study, which positively regulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression and negatively regulated ferroportin 1 expression, and decreased iron accumulation in the substantia nigra.
- Marching in unison may increase risk of use of excessive force in policing protests
What if the simple act of marching in unison -- as riot police commonly do -- increases the likelihood that law enforcement will use excessive force in policing protests? That's the suggestion of a new study that examined the judgments of men who were asked to walk in step with other men.
- Prescription for better stroke care: Prescription at discharge improves outcomes
Stroke patients are 70 percent more likely to continue taking their stroke prevention medications one year later if they have a prescription in hand when discharged, according to researchers. After having a stroke or minor stroke, the risk of having another stroke is greater. The risk of recurrence, however, can be reduced by more than 80 per cent by following stroke prevention strategies such as rehabilitation and taking medications.
- Conflicts with teachers are risk factor for school shootings
Researchers conducted a systematic literature search of all the available studies dealing with school shootings. The aim of the analysis was to clarify which social dynamics in the social network of perpetrators can be observed in advance as playing an important role in school shootings. Up to now, researchers had assumed that bullying between peers and the social exclusion of the perpetrators were the most prominent factors in school shootings. This study shows, however, that in many cases conflicts with teachers seemed to be a decisive factor in the school shooting cases investigated.
- Gamblers are greedy bird-brains, new research finds
Gamblers show the same tendencies as pigeons when they make risky decisions, new research has shown. Researchers conducted tests that found that both human gamblers and pigeons were 35% more likely to gamble for high-value than low-value rewards.
- The evolutionary roots of human altruism
Scientists have long been searching for the factor that determines why humans often behave so selflessly. It was known that humans share this tendency with species of small Latin American primates of the family Callitrichidae (tamarins and marmosets), leading some to suggest that cooperative care for the young, which is ubiquitous in this family, was responsible for spontaneous helping behavior. But it was not so clear what other primate species do in this regard, because most studies were not comparable.
- Does food advertising make us eat more?
On a daily basis we are surrounded with images of appetizing and often unhealthy food on TV adverts, billboards, in magazines and everywhere we go. With obesity on the rise, a new article raises questions about constant exposure to food cues and its effect on eating habits. Does it encourage over-indulgence? Are overweight people more vulnerable? The research examines our cognitive processes, our motivators to eat, and the practical implications for the management of dysfunctional eating behaviors.
- Sweet dreams? Client and therapist dreams of each other during psychodynamic psychotherapy
Researchers set out to interpret the content and consequences of client’s dreams about their therapists and vice versa, in a new study. The analysis reveals some fascinating insights into client and therapist personalities, therapeutic relationships, and the psychotherapy process.
- Fear, safety and the role of sleep in human PTDS
The effectiveness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment may hinge significantly upon sleep quality, report researchers. PTSD is an often difficult-to-treat mental health condition triggered by a terrifying event. It is characterized by severe anxiety, flashbacks, nightmares and uncontrollable thoughts, often fearful. Research has shown that fear conditioning, considered an animal model of PTSD, results in disruption of animals' rapid eye movement (REM) sleep -- periods of deeper, dream-filled slumber.
- Protecting brains of very preterm infants
Premature babies are far more at risk than infants born at term of developing brain damage resulting in neurodevelopmental delay that may persist throughout their lives. A team of specialists in infant brain imaging has demonstrated that administering three doses of erythropoietin may help.
- New estrogen-based compound suppresses binge-like eating behavior in female mice
The hormone estrogen can specifically trigger brain serotonin neurons to inhibit binge eating in female mice, researchers report. They add that this result is consistent with data in humans. "We can speculate that in women who develop binge eating who also happen to have irregular menstrual cycles, it is probably because their estrogen function is somehow damaged, which is what leads to the development of binge eating," said the study's lead author.
- Alcoholics have an abnormal CD8 T cell response to the influenza virus
Chronic drinking is associated with an increased incidence and severity of respiratory infections. A reduced CD8 T cell response was previously implicated in increased disease severity due to influenza virus infections. New rodent findings indicate that only some CD8 T cell functions are damaged while others remain intact.
- Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with later excess weight/obesity during adolescence
Growth deficiency is a defining feature of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). A new study has found that rates of excess weight/obesity are elevated in adolescents with partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS). Additionally, females with FASD may be at a greater risk for excess weight/obesity than males during adolescence.
- Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling
A new study examines antecedent predictors of childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol. Findings indicate that initiation of sipping/tasting was less related to psychosocial proneness for problem behavior and more related to perceived parental approval for child sipping.
- Sleep apnea treatment is effective for older people
Continuous positive airway pressure is effective at treating sleep apnea in older people, a new study has found. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a condition where the walls of the throat relax and narrow during sleep, interrupting normal breathing and causing profound sleepiness. For people with moderate or severe OSA, doctors usually recommend using a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, which consists of a small pump that delivers pressurized air into the nose through a mask, stopping the throat from closing.
- Collaborative care intervention improves depression among teens
Among adolescents with depression seen in primary care, a collaborative care intervention that included patient and parent engagement and education resulted in greater improvement in depressive symptoms at 12 months than usual care, according to a study.
- Study finds less domestic violence among married couples who smoke pot
New research findings from a study of 634 couples found that the more often they smoked marijuana, the less likely they were to engage in domestic violence. "These findings suggest that marijuana use is predictive of lower levels of aggression towards one's partner in the following year," authors say.
- How parents can help their children succeed, stay in school
Students are back in school and now is the time for parents to develop routines to help their children succeed academically. A university professor says parental involvement, more than income or social status, is a predictor of student achievement.
- Brain benefits from weight loss following bariatric surgery
Weight loss surgery can curb alterations in brain activity associated with obesity and improve cognitive function involved in planning, strategizing and organizing, according to a new study. Bariatric surgery is used to help people who are dangerously obese lose weight. Bariatric surgery procedures are designed to restrict the amount of food you can eat before you feel full by reducing the stomach's size or limit the absorption of nutrients by removing part of the small intestine from the path food takes through the digestive tract.
- How do former churchgoers build a new moral identity?
As their moral perspectives change, disillusioned churchgoers find it increasingly difficult to remain associated with their church, yet many also find it difficult to leave. According to a new study, former churchgoers experience deep identity crises as their most important relationships and beliefs are put at risk.
- Fact or fiction: Which do moviegoers prefer?
Do you feel sadder watching a documentary about war or a drama about a young person dying of cancer? According to a new study, consumers mistakenly believe they will have stronger emotional reactions when stories are based on true events rather than fiction.
- Getting things done: How does changing the way you think about deadlines help you reach your goals?
From doing yard work to finishing up the last few classes required for a college degree, consumers struggle to get things done. According to a new study, the way consumers think about deadlines can determine whether or not they start tasks and accomplish their goals.
- Outsourcing parenthood? It takes a village AND the marketplace to raise a child
Ask any parent raising kids in today’s fast-paced society and chances are they would agree that there are only so many hours in the day. Recognizing a need for help, many businesses now offer traditional caregiving services ranging from planning birthday parties to teaching children how to ride a bike. According to a new study, by outsourcing traditional parental duties, modern-day parents feel they are ultimately protecting parenthood.
- Lack of naturally occuring protein linked to dementia
The first evidence that the lack of a naturally occurring protein is linked to early signs of dementia has been provided by researchers. An absence of MK2/3, in spite of the brain cells (neurons) having significant structural abnormalities, did not prevent memories being formed, but did prevent these memories from being altered.
- Link between prenatal antidepressant exposure, autism risk called into question
Previous studies that have suggested an increased risk of autism among children of women who took antidepressants during pregnancy may actually reflect the known increased risk associated with severe maternal depression. Now researchers have called that into question with further studies -- and complex answers.
- Disability, deafness often go hand-in-hand
At least forty per cent of UK people with learning disabilities are suffering from hearing loss, but new research shows they are unlikely to be diagnosed. To research hearing loss in people with learning disabilities, one expert focuses on the current issues people with learning disabilities (PWLD) are facing and why they are left undiagnosed in the long-term.
- Risk of young people driving drunk increases if their parents drink
If parents consume alcohol, it is more likely that their children will drive under its influence. This is one of the conclusions of a new study analyzing the data of more than 30,000 students and their relationship with drinking and driving.
- Wii Balance Board induces changes in brains of people with multiple sclerosis
A balance board accessory for a popular video game console can help people with multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce their risk of accidental falls, according to new research. Magnetic resonance imaging scans showed that use of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board system appears to induce favorable changes in brain connections associated with balance and movement.
- Student designs soccer video game adapted to people with cerebral palsy
A soccer game adapted for people with cerebral palsy has been designed that is operated with a foot switch, a push rod head switch and a hand switch. A new tool allows any player to have equal access with different physical conditions.
- Patients with eating disorders have increased risk of autoimmune diseases
An association between eating disorders and several autoimmune diseases has been observed in people with different genetic backgrounds. These findings support the link between immune-mediated mechanisms and development of eating disorders.
- Humble leaders get more commitment
Those leaders who are more critical of their own leadership style than their employees are, have greatest success, according to new research. The research study shows that leaders with a good self-insight, who are humble and act as credible role models, are rewarded with committed and service-minded employees.
- Methadone treatment suppresses testosterone in opioid addicts
Treatment for opioid addiction tampers with the testosterone levels of male but not female opioid users, a study reveals. Low testosterone in men has been associated with poor quality of life as well as erectile dysfunction, fatigue, and mood disturbances.
- Complication risk of deep brain stimulation similar for older, younger Parkinson patients
Older patients with Parkinson disease who undergo deep brain stimulation appear to have a 90-day complication risk similar to younger patients, suggesting that age alone should not be a primary factor for excluding patients as DBS candidates.
- Finding keys to glioblastoma therapeutic resistance
One of the keys to why certain glioblastomas – the primary form of a deadly brain cancer – are resistant to drug therapy has been found by researchers. The answer lies not in the DNA sequence of the tumor, but in its epigenetic signature, they report.
- Combining math and music to open new possibilities
The power of mathematics to open new possibilities in music has been demonstrated by scientists for years. Modern experiments with computer music are just the most recent example.
- 25 percent fewer opioid-related deaths in states allowing medical marijuana
On average, states allowing the medical use of marijuana have lower rates of deaths resulting from opioid analgesic overdoses than states without such laws. Opioid analgesics, such as OxyContin, Percocet and Vicodin, are prescribed for moderate to severe pain, and work by suppressing a person’s perception of pain.
- Sleep drunkenness disorder may affect one in seven
A study is shining new light on a sleep disorder called “sleep drunkenness.” The disorder may be as prevalent as affecting one in every seven people. Sleep drunkenness disorder involves confusion or inappropriate behavior, such as answering the phone instead of turning off the alarm, during or following arousals from sleep, either during the first part of the night or in the morning. An episode, often triggered by a forced awakening, may even cause violent behavior during sleep or amnesia of the episode.