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- Fear of losing money, not spending habits, affects investor risk tolerance
Scientists analyzed the causes of risk tolerance and found that loss aversion, or the fear of losing money, is the primary factor that explains investors' risk tolerance.
- Kids with autism and sensory processing disorders show differences in brain wiring
Researchers have found that children with sensory processing disorders have decreased structural brain connections in specific sensory regions different than those in autism, further establishing SPD as a clinically important neurodevelopmental disorder.
- Appreciation for fat jokes, belief in obese stereotypes linked
From movies to television, obesity is still considered “fair game” for jokes and ridicule. A new study took a closer look at weight-related humor to see if anti-fat attitudes played into a person’s appreciation or distaste for fat humor in the media.
- Supportive moms and sisters boost female baboon's rank
A study of dominance in female baboons suggests that the route to a higher rank is to maintain close ties with mom, and to have lots of supportive sisters.
- Money talks when it comes to acceptability of 'sin' companies, study reveals
Companies who make their money in the 'sin' industries such as the tobacco, alcohol and gaming industries typically receive less attention from institutional investors and financial analysts. But new research shows social norms and attitudes towards these types of businesses are subject to compromise when their share price looks to be on the rise.
- Naltrexone may be effective in diminishing impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease patients
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may confront a common but largely unrecognized challenge: the occurrence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as compulsive gambling, sexual behavior, eating, or spending. A team of investigators conducted a pilot study and found that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may be an effective treatment for diminishing ICD symptoms in PD patients.
- Many depressed preschoolers still suffer in later school years
Children diagnosed with depression as preschoolers are likely to suffer from depression as school-age children and young adolescents, new research shows. The investigators followed 246 children, now ages 9 to 12, who were enrolled in the study as preschoolers when they were 3 to 5 years old. The children and their primary caregivers participated in up to six annual and four semiannual assessments. They were screened using a tool called the Preschool Feelings Checklist and evaluated using an age-appropriate diagnostic interview.
- Laughter is the best medicine? The emotional appeal of stand-up comedy
Comics taking to the stage should take note: how much of a hit they are with their audiences won’t be down to just their jokes. The link between humor and emotion plays a large part in how well an audience connects with a comedian, and vice versa, according to new research.
- Sugar mimics guide stem cells toward neural fate
Many growth factors that influence the fate of embryonic stem cells must bind to sugars attached to specific receptors on the surface of the cell to work. Because the sugars are difficult to manipulate, biochemists created synthetic stand ins that helped to identify substructures recognized by a growth factor involved in neural development.
- Numerical learning disability: Dyscalculia linked to difficulties in reading and spelling
Between three and six percent of schoolchildren suffer from an arithmetic-related learning disability. Researchers now show that these children are also more likely to exhibit deficits in reading and spelling than had been previously suspected.
- Older adults are at risk of financial abuse, often from family members
Nearly one in every 20 elderly American adults is being financially exploited -- often by their own family members. This burgeoning public health crisis especially affects poor and black people. It merits the scrutiny of clinicians, policy makers, researchers, and any citizen who cares about the dignity and well-being of older Americans, says an expert.
- Hope for more accurate diagnosis of memory problems
More accurate tests could be created to diagnose diseases such as Alzheimer's or memory problems stemming from head injuries, leading to earlier intervention, according to new findings.
- Parenting skills improve in ADHD parents with medication
Parenting skills of adults with ADHD improve when their ADHD is treated with medication, according to researchers. At least 25 percent of clinic-referred children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have a parent with ADHD. At least 25 percent of clinic-referred children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have a parent with ADHD.
- Brain response to appetizing food cues varies among obese people
People who have the most common genetic mutation linked to obesity respond differently to pictures of appetizing foods than overweight or obese people who do not have the genetic mutation, according to a new study. More than one-third of adults are obese. Obesity typically results from a combination of eating too much, getting too little physical activity and genetics.
- Teen insomnia linked with depression, anxiety
A study of high school students has shed new light on the links between insomnia-related mental health conditions among teens. "People with insomnia find it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep for as long as they need to. This is a widespread sleep disorder among the general public, and in most countries about 11% of teens aged 13-16 years experience insomnia at some stage," one researcher said.
- A blood test for suicide risk? Alterations to a single gene could predict risk of suicide attempt
Researchers say they have discovered a chemical alteration in a single human gene linked to stress reactions that, if confirmed in larger studies, could give doctors a simple blood test to reliably predict a person’s risk of attempting suicide.
- Problem drinking in midlife doubles chance of memory problems in later life
Middle-aged adults with a history of problem drinking are more than twice as likely to suffer from severe memory impairment in later life, research shows. The study highlights the hitherto largely unknown link between harmful patterns of alcohol consumption and problems with memory later in life -- problems which may place people at a high risk of developing dementia.
- Striatal dopamine transporter binding correlates with body composition and visual attention bias for food cues in healthy young men
Scientists have described a way that brain chemistry may make some people notice food more easily, which can tempt overeating even in people who are not overweight.
- Drinking sugar-sweetened beverages during adolescence impairs memory, animal study suggests
Daily consumption of beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup or sucrose can impair the ability to learn and remember information, particularly when consumption occurs during adolescence, a study done in rats suggests.
- Blood sugar levels closely linked to how our brains respond to the sight of food, twin study finds
Our brain's response to the sight of food appears to be driven more by how low our blood sugar level is at the moment than our upbringing or genetics.
- Time of arrival at hospital impacts time to treatment and survival of heart attack patients
Study shows heart attack patients who arrive at the hospital during weeknights, weekends and holidays have a 13 percent increased risk of dying compared with those arriving during regular business hours. On average, time to receive angioplasty was 16 minutes faster for people who arrived during business hours. Time of day was not associated with delays in aspirin administration, imaging tests or intravenous clot-busting medications. Compared to previous reports, the researchers observed lower in-hospital deaths and improved door-to-needle times.
- Vision-correcting display makes reading glasses so yesterday
Researchers are developing vision-correcting displays that can compensate for a viewer's visual impairments to create sharp images without the need for glasses or contact lenses. The technology could potentially help those who currently need corrective lenses to use their smartphones, tablets and computers, and could one day aid people with more complex visual problems.
- Watching neurons fire from a front-row seat
They are with us every moment of every day, controlling every action we make, from the breath we breathe to the words we speak, and yet there is still a lot we don't know about the cells that make up our nervous systems. When things go awry and nerve cells don't communicate as they should, the consequences can be devastating. Speech can be slurred, muscles stop working on command and memories can be lost forever.
- Brainwaves can predict audience reaction of television programming
By analyzing the brainwaves of 16 individuals as they watched mainstream television content, researchers were able to accurately predict the preferences of large TV audiences, up to 90 percent in the case of Super Bowl commercials.
- Brand-specific television alcohol ads a significant predictor of brand consumption among underage youth
Underage drinkers are three times more likely to drink alcohol brands that advertise on television programs they watch compared to other alcohol brands, providing new and compelling evidence of a strong association between alcohol advertising and youth drinking behavior.
- Menu secrets that can make you slim by design
If you've ever ordered the wrong food at a restaurant, don't blame yourself; blame the menu. What you order may have less to do with what you want and more to do with a menu's layout and descriptions.
- Social origins of intelligence in the brain
By studying the injuries and aptitudes of Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head wounds during the war, scientists are tackling -- and beginning to answer -- longstanding questions about how the brain works. The researchers found that brain regions that contribute to optimal social functioning also are vital to general intelligence and to emotional intelligence. This finding bolsters the view that general intelligence emerges from the emotional and social context of one's life.
- Autistic brain less flexible at taking on tasks
The brains of children with autism are relatively inflexible at switching from rest to task performance, according to a new brain-imaging study.
- Help your infant or toddler cope with stressful events
18-month-old “Karla” was playing on the slide at the park in her neighborhood, her mother sitting on a nearby bench chatting with her friend. A loud screech was followed by a crash and the sound of car alarms going off. In a flash, Karla was swept into her mother’s arms and both were shaking as they saw people running and heard sirens coming toward the scene of a car crash in the street next to the park.
- Can summer camp be key to world peace?
A new longitudinal study shows that campers who formed a close relationship with at least one member from the "enemy" side at camp, and who maintained those relationships once the program was over, retained the strongest feelings of positivity toward the other side
- Preterm children's brains can catch up years later
There's some good news for parents of preterm babies -- latest research shows that by the time they become teenagers, the brains of many preterm children can perform almost as well as those born at term.
- New gadget helps vision-impaired to read graphs
People who are blind can now read more than just words, such as graphs and graphics, following the development of an affordable digital reading system by researchers.
- Diverse boards pay more dividends, take fewer risks, study finds
A study of more than 2,000 companies that spanned over 13 years has found that board diversity curbs excessive risk taking and tend to pay more in dividends.
- Mortality rates increase due to extreme heat and cold
When temperatures are extremely high or low, there is a significant increase in the number of deaths caused by heart failure or stroke. This has been confirmed by epidemiological studies.
- Using TV, videos or a computer game as a stress reducer after a tough day at work can lead to feelings of guilt and failure
It seems common practice: After a long day at work, most people sometimes just want to turn on the TV or play a video or computer game to calm down and relax. However, in a new study researchers found that people who were highly stressed after work did not feel relaxed or recovered when they watched TV or played computer or video games. Instead, they tended to show increased levels of guilt and feelings of failure.
- Healthy lifestyle may buffer against stress-related cell aging
A new study shows that while the impact of life’s stressors accumulate overtime and accelerate cellular aging, these negative effects may be reduced by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising and sleeping well.
- Dementia patients more likely to get implanted pacemakers, says study
People with dementia are more likely to get implanted pacemakers for heart rhythm irregularities, such as atrial fibrillation, than people who don't have cognitive difficulties, according to researchers. The researchers noted the finding runs counter to expectations that less aggressive interventions are the norm for patients with the incurable and disabling illness.
- Electronic screening tool to triage teenagers and risk of substance misuse
An electronic screening tool that starts with a single question to assess the frequency of substance misuse appears to be an easy way to screen teenagers who visited a physician for routine medical care.
- Memory relies on astrocytes, the brain's lesser known cells: supportive cells vital in cognitive function
When you're expecting something -- like the meal you've ordered at a restaurant -- or when something captures your interest, unique electrical rhythms sweep through your brain.
- Stimulation of brain region restores consciousness to animals under general anesthesia
Stimulating the ventral tegmental area, one of two dopamine-producing regions in the brain, was able to arouse animals receiving general anesthesia with either isoflurane or propofol. The same effect did not result from stimulation of the substantia nigra.
- Glucose 'control switch' in the brain key to both types of diabetes
Researchers have pinpointed a mechanism in part of the brain that is key to sensing glucose levels in the blood, linking it to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
- Brain's habenula signals how bad things could be
An evolutionarily ancient and tiny part of the brain tracks expectations about nasty events, according to new research. The study demonstrates for the first time that the human habenula, half the size of a pea, tracks predictions about negative events, like painful electric shocks, suggesting a role in learning from bad experiences.
- Researchers examine changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe
Improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities reduce the cognitive disparities between men and women or improve the gap in favor of women, according to new research.
- Facial features are the key to first impressions
A new study shows that it is possible to accurately predict first impressions using measurements of physical features in everyday images of faces, such as those found on social media.
- Learning the smell of fear: Mothers teach babies their own fears via odor, animal study shows
Babies can learn what to fear in the first days of life just by smelling the odor of their distressed mothers’, new research suggests. And not just “natural” fears: If a mother experienced something before pregnancy that made her fear something specific, her baby will quickly learn to fear it too -- through her odor when she feels fear.
- Six reasons for headaches in school-age children and how parents can help relieve the pain
As the school year approaches and begins, many parents may start to hear their children complain about headaches.
- Green spaces found to increase birth weight
Mothers who live near green spaces deliver babies with significantly higher birth weights, according to a new study.
- New protein structure could help treat Alzheimer's, related diseases
Bioengineers have a designed a peptide structure that can stop the harmful changes of the body's normal proteins into a state that's linked to widespread diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and Lou Gehrig's disease.
- Children with disabilities benefit from classroom inclusion
The secret to boosting the language skills of preschoolers with disabilities may be to put them in classrooms with typically developing peers, a new study finds.
- Wait, wait -- don’t tell me the good news yet: Early warning about goal completion a buzzkill
New research finds that the positive reaction one would have when succeeding is lessened if it doesn't follow the expected course.
- Google searches may hold key to future market crashes, researchers find
A team of researchers has developed a method to automatically identify topics that people search for on Google before subsequent stock market falls.
- Wearable device for early detection of common diabetes-related neurological condition
Thanks to a small, wearable device that can hang on a pair of eyeglasses, a common complication of diabetes may get caught sooner. Researchers have developed a pupillometer that scans the patient's eyes for early signs of diabetic autonomic neuropathy -- a condition that progressively affects the autonomic nerves controlling vital organs. This kind of early detection enables early treatment, leading to far better health outcomes for the patient.
- Motivation explains disconnect between testing, real-life functioning for seniors
A psychology researcher is proposing a new theory to explain why older adults show declining cognitive ability with age, but don't necessarily show declines in the workplace or daily life. One key appears to be how motivated older adults are to maintain focus on cognitive tasks.
- It takes more than practice to excel
Psychologists have overturned a 20-year-old theory that people who excel in their fields are those who practiced the most.
- Six new genetic risk factors for Parkinson's found
Using data from over 18,000 patients, scientists have identified more than two dozen genetic risk factors involved in Parkinson's disease, including six that had not been previously reported. "Unraveling the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's is vital to understanding the multiple mechanisms involved in this complex disease, and hopefully, may one day lead to effective therapies," said the senior author of the study.
- New tools help neuroscientists analyze 'big data'
New technologies for monitoring brain activity are generating unprecedented quantities of information. That data may hold new insights into how the brain works -- but only if researchers can interpret it. To help make sense of the data, neuroscientists can now harness the power of distributed computing with Thunder, a library of tools.
- New brain pathways for understanding type 2 diabetes and obesity uncovered
Researchers have identified neural pathways that increase understanding of how the brain regulates body weight, energy expenditure, and blood glucose levels – a discovery that can lead to new therapies for treating Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
- Slow walking speed, memory complaints can predict dementia
A study involving nearly 27,000 older adults on five continents found that nearly 1 in 10 met criteria for pre-dementia based on a simple test that measures how fast people walk and whether they have cognitive complaints. People who tested positive for pre-dementia were twice as likely as others to develop dementia within 12 years.
- Anti-inflammatory drug can prevent neuron loss in Parkinson's model
An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, a study has shown. The findings demonstrate that the drug, called XPro1595, can reach the brain at sufficient levels and have beneficial effects when administered by subcutaneous injection, like an insulin shot. Previous studies of XPro1595 in animals tested more invasive modes of delivery, such as direct injection into the brain.
- Manipulating key protein in brain holds potential against obesity, diabetes
A protein that controls when genes are switched on or off plays a key role in specific areas of the brain to regulate metabolism, researchers have found. The research potentially could lead to new therapies to treat obesity and diabetes, since the transcription factor involved – spliced X-box binding protein 1 – appears to influence the body's sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling.