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- Same day return to play after concussion still common among youth athletes
Concussion guidelines published over the past decade -- and laws in all states -- now discourage youth athletes from returning to play if they display any signs of concussion after an injury. However, new research confirms athletes often head back into the game on the same day.
- More time on digital devices means kids less likely to finish homework
In findings that will not surprise the parents of any school-aged child, new research finds that the more time children spend using digital devices, the less likely they are to finish their homework.
- Visits to pediatric emergency departments for headache pain in children are on the rise
There is a growing body of evidence that pediatric emergency departments are seeing a steady increase in the number of children presenting with headaches.
- Adverse events affect children's development, physical health and biology
It's known that adverse childhood experiences carry over into adult life, but a new study is focusing on the effect of these experiences in the childhood years.
- Potential harms of parents' online posts about children
What parents share with others about their children in today's digital age presents new and often unanticipated risks.
- New smart gloves to monitor Parkinson's disease patients
Prescribing a medication plan for a patient with Parkinson’s disease is a big challenge for doctors, but now a biomedical engineering professor and his students are making great strides in solving that problem with their groundbreaking research.
- Discrimination Based on Weight Doubles Health Risks
How society treats overweight people makes health matters worse, a new study has found. Among the findings, authors note that people who experience weight discrimination often shun social interaction and skip doctor visits.
- Pediatricians update digital media recommendations for kids
New AAP guidelines say parents not only need to pay attention to the amount of time children spend on digital media -- but also how, when and where they use it.
- Learning from model experiments
What students in school learn from a model experiment depends on how similar the model substances look to the originals, a new study has found.
- First atomic-level image of the human 'marijuana receptor' unveiled
In a discovery that advances the understanding of how marijuana works in the human body, an international group of scientists has, for the first time, created a three-dimensional atomic-level image of the molecular structure activated by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active chemical in marijuana.
- Jet lag treatment? Blast of thin air can reset circadian clocks
We might not think of our circadian clock until we are jetlagged, but scientists continue to puzzle over what drives our biological timepiece. Now, a study has found that variations in surrounding oxygen levels can reset circadian clocks of mice. If confirmed in humans, the research could help inform how airlines moderate cabin air pressure.
- Modeling shifting beliefs in a complex social environment
A new model is allowing scientists to explore how changing an individual's certainty in the belief on the truth of one statement leads to changes in their beliefs on the truth of others. This tool could help to answer questions about individuals' likelihoods of being persuaded to a new belief. People rarely form opinions by merely accepting or rejecting the social consensus of others, studies have shown.
- ADHD symptom persistence into adulthood estimated
Sixty percent of children with ADHD in a recent study demonstrated persistence of symptoms into their mid-20's, and 41 percent had both symptoms and impairment as young adults.
- Scientists build a better cancer drug to pass through blood-brain barrier
In efforts to develop new treatments for brain cancer, scientists report they have altered the structure of an experimental drug that seems to enhance its ability to slip through the mostly impermeable blood-brain barrier.
- ALS study reveals role of RNA-binding proteins
Although only 10 percent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are hereditary, a significant number of them are caused by mutations that affect proteins that bind RNA, a type of genetic material. Researchers studied several ALS cases with a mutation in a RNA-binding protein known as hnRNP A2/B1. In the study, they describe how damage to this protein contributes to ALS by scrambling crucial cellular messaging systems.
- Do microbes control our mood?
Our intestine hosts a complex ecosystem of bacteria; we call it the gut microbiota, which includes at least 1000 difference species. We get most of our gut microbes soon after birth, although there is evidence of colonization even during prenatal life. Now new research on gut bacteria may change the way we look at anxiety, depression, and behavioral disorders, say scientists.
- Treatment approach used in cancer holds promise for Alzheimer's disease
New Alzheimer's treatment could be delivered as nasal spray, say scientists. Researchers have developed a novel treatment that could block the development of Alzheimer's disease using microscopic droplets of fat to carry drugs into the brain. This treatment approach, which is used to target drugs to cancer cells, has been successfully applied to Alzheimer's disease for the first time, restoring memory loss in mice.
- Scientists can listen to proteins by turning data into music
Transforming data about the structure of proteins into melodies gives scientists a completely new way of analyzing the molecules that could reveal new insights into how they work -- by listening to them. A new study shows how musical sounds can help scientists analyze data using their ears instead of their eyes.
- Leisure activities, job crafting can make company 'mistfits' more productive
Finding meaning outside of work and proactively tailoring duties on the job may help people who fail to gel with a company's culture stay engaged and become more productive workers, according to researchers.
- Music may help make high-intensity interval training viable option for average person
Listening to music may make it easier for people to adopt short duration exercise regimens that could help them stay in shape, according to researchers.
- 170,000 hate crimes go unreported in the UK each year, according to new research
English researchers have developed new hate crimes reporting systems to provide authorities with a clearer picture of the level of abuse in that country.
- Advances made in Alzheimer's research
A major advance has been made in Alzheimer’s research, say researchers. They showed how a diseased vertebrate brain can naturally react to Alzheimer’s pathology by forming more neurons. Two proteins (Interleukin-4 and STAT6) have been identified to be relevant for this process. This is a big step towards the understanding, prevention or even healing of Alzheimer’s disease – a disease with about 170,000 new cases diagnosed every year in Germany.
- Pre-university skills course boosts students' A-level success
A course designed to teach sixth form students essential university-level study skills also significantly improves their A-level results, according to research from England.
- Neighborhoods important factor in risk of stroke for all races
Those living in more advantaged neighborhoods are less likely to have a stroke than are their counterparts who live in less advantaged neighborhoods, according to a new study.
- Exercise may help ward off memory decline
Exercise may be associated with a small benefit for elderly people who already have memory and thinking problems, according to new research. The research involved people with vascular cognitive impairment, which is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. In vascular cognitive impairment, problems with memory and thinking skills result from damage to large and small blood vessels in the brain.
- Patients with insomnia have altered activity in specific brain regions
Specific brain regions, including those involved in awareness of self and tendency to ruminate, show altered activity in patients with insomnia when compared to good sleepers, according to a new study.
- Scientists find new genetic roots of schizophrenia
Using a recently developed technology for analyzing DNA, scientists have found dozens of genes and two major biological pathways that are likely involved in the development of the disorder but had not been uncovered in previous genetic studies of schizophrenia. The work provides important new information about how schizophrenia originates and points the way to more detailed studies -- and possibly better treatments in the future. Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling mental illness whose symptoms can include hallucinations, delusions and cognitive problems. The illness afflicts about 1 percent of the human population.
- Abuse of some prescription drugs can be a risk for college sexual assaults, regretted sex
The abuse of prescription drugs by college students can play a role in negative sexual events such as sexual assault and regretted sex, new research has found.
- Neurodevelopmental model of Zika may provide rapid answers
A newly study demonstrates fetal death and brain damage in early chick embryos similar to microcephaly--a rare birth defect linked to the Zika virus.
- Single gene linked to some cases of autism spectrum disorder
Scientists have linked mutations in a single gene to autism in people who have a rare tumor syndrome typically diagnosed in childhood. The findings, in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), may lead to a better understanding of the genetic roots of autism in the wider population.
- New research explores what it means when a child loses a pet
Given the relatively short lifespans of many pets, it’s not unusual for children to witness the realities of life played out in their homes. New research focuses on how children understand death in these moments, and the ideas, feelings and responses they have when their pets die.
- Older men cling to 1950's, '60's blueprint of masculinity
Older men adhere closely to an idealized masculinity script that is incompatible with the realities of later life, a new study suggests. The mismatch between aging and the often ageless expectations of popular masculinity leaves senior men without a blueprint to behave or handle emotions, according to a new literature review.
- Are hot flashes genetic?
Researchers may have found a clue to why some women experience hot flashes or night sweats and others don’t: gene variants affecting a brain receptor regulating estrogen release and is present across all ethnicities. It appears that women who have these variants are more likely to have hot flashes.
- Dire effects of sports head injuries, concussions still a concern
As football and soccer become year-round sports, their popularity accounts for more concussions and head injuries. This has parents, athletes and head injury experts sounding the alarm of long-term health concerns for concussed participants.
- Going for a run could improve cramming for exams
Ever worried that all the information you've crammed in during a study session might not stay in your memory? The answer might be going for a run, according to a new study.
- Are extraverts always at an advantage in team-based work?
Extraverts are perceived as proactively contributing to teamwork because of their ability to develop energizing relationships with their teammates, research finds. These results show that extraverts' perceived contributions are strongly linked to the level of agreement within a team; they are likely to energize teammates when conflict levels are low but this advantage vanishes when there are disagreements within the team. In fact, extraverts may even prolong task conflict within teams by voicing ideas in a dominating, assertive or sometimes aggressive manner.
- Today's self-taught typists almost as fast as touch typists, as long as they can see the keyboard
These days, due to the spread of computers, tablets and smart phones, almost everybody types. But most modern-day typists are self-taught and have adopted "nonstandard" styles that are much different from the "touch typing" taught in typing classes.
- Preschoolers correct speaking mistakes even when talking to themselves
One of the differences between adults and preschoolers when it comes to private speech is that adults typically talk to themselves in their heads, while preschoolers talk to themselves aloud, particularly while playing or working on a task. Private speech is a good thing for a child's cognitive development; however, it may be important that children monitor and repair errors in their speech, even when talking to themselves. A recent study found that children do, in fact, monitor their speech for errors, even without a listener.
- Impaired recycling of mitochondria in autism?
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic disorder that causes autism in about half of those affected, could stem from a defect in a basic system cells use to recycle their mitochondria, report scientists. They believe their findings open new treatment possibilities not just for TSC, but possibly for other forms of autism and some neurologic disorders.
- Folinic acid could help children with autism communicate better
Prescription doses of folinic acid, which is a reduced form of a B vitamin known as folate, could help improve the language and communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These are the preliminary findings from a placebo-controlled trial in which children were randomized to receive either high-dose folinic acid or a placebo.
- A new player in appetite control
Brain cells called glial cells play a critical role in controlling appetite and feeding behavior, neuroscientists have discovered. In a study of mice, the researchers found that activating these cells stimulates overeating, and that when the cells are suppressed, appetite is also suppressed. The findings could offer scientists a new target for developing drugs against obesity and other appetite-related disorders, the researchers say.
- Hard of hearing? It's not your ears, it's your brain
The reason you may have to say something twice when talking to older family members at Thanksgiving dinner may not be because of their hearing. Researchers have determined that something is going on in the brains of typical older adults that causes them to struggle to follow speech amidst background noise, even when their hearing would be considered normal on a clinical assessment.
- Other people are less attention-grabbing to the wealthy
The degree to which other people divert your attention may depend on your social class, according to new findings. The research shows that people who categorize themselves as being in a relatively high social class spend less time looking at passersby compared with those who aren't as well off, a difference that seems to stem from spontaneous processes related to perception and attention.
- Migraine sufferers have more nitrate-reducing microbes in their mouths
The mouths of migraine sufferers harbor significantly more microbes with the ability to modify nitrates than people who do not get migraine headaches, new research has found.
- Gene links risk of psychiatric disease to reduced synapse numbers
Mutations in a gene linked with brain development may dispose people to multiple forms of psychiatric disease by changing the way brain cells communicate, new research has revealed.
- Race influences teachers' referrals to special and gifted education, finds study
Teacher referrals for special and gifted education testing are subjective and may be swayed by a student's race, finds research.
- Scientists developing MRI-guided neural stem cell delivery method
Scientists are aiming to develop a more effective method for delivering neural stem cells to the brain in an effort to move forward stem cell therapies to treat neurological disorders.
- Depression's physical source discovered
Understanding of the physical root of depression has been advanced, thanks to new research. Researchers have identified the lateral orbitofrontal cortex as the area of the brain affected by depression. This discovery could open up possible new treatments, say the researchers.
- Children involved in cyber-bullying much more likely to view web content containing self-harm and suicide, according to a new study
A new English study on the link between cyber-bullying and suicide has found that ten per cent of children are involved in cyber-bullying, as victims, perpetrators or both, and that they are much more likely to view web content containing self-harm and suicide. It calls for more web-based prevention and intervention strategies to tackle the issue.
- Researchers identify new imaging findings, treatment for patients with Parsonage-Turner Syndrome
Physicians have been studying patient outcomes of Parsonage-Turner Syndrome (PTS), a neurological disorder that results in a sudden paralysis of one or more muscles around the shoulder and arm.
- Eureka! Gender affects how we judge competence, genius
Think of the word "genius," and a few images undoubtedly come to mind – perhaps a picture of Albert Einstein, of a scientist in a lab shouting “Eureka!” or of present-day theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking. Whatever mental picture is conjured up, chances are they all have one thing in common: The person is male. A new study that sought to determine whether perceptions of inventions and inventors are shaped by how they're described. Researchers looked at two metaphors that describe scientific discovery: a light bulb turning on, signifying a moment of brilliance, and a seed that is nurtured until it takes root.
- Insight into sleep's role in schizophrenia offers potential treatment path
A sleep abnormality likely plays an important role in schizophrenia, according to sleep experts. In a review of the growing body of evidence linking a reduction in sleep spindle activity to schizophrenia, the researchers suggested that a better understanding of this sleep abnormality’s genetic underpinnings opens the door to new treatments for the psychiatric disorder.
- General anesthesia in young children not associated with significant neurological impairments, study suggests
Children who are exposed to general anesthesia from birth to age 2 have developmental testing results in kindergarten that are similar to those of children who have not been exposed, according to a new study.
- Does weed help you sleep? Probably not
Marijuana users may believe that frequent use helps them sleep, but that perception has been challenged by a new study. It found that daily marijuana users actually scored higher on the Insomnia Severity Index and on sleep-disturbance measures than those who did not use it daily.
- Here's how young people decide when they're drunk 'enough,' according to math
Young people decide whether they've had enough to drink the same way the cruise control on a car "decides" whether to accelerate or hit the brakes, explains a unique research project that aims to analyze drinking behavior the way engineers might analyze a mechanical system.
- Wearable artificial vision device shows promise in helping people who are legally blind 'read'
A unique wearable artificial vision device may help people who are legally blind “read” and recognize faces. It may also help these individuals accomplish everyday tasks with significantly greater ease than using traditional assistive reading devices, suggests a new study.
- Will millennials ever get married?
Millennials are getting married later in life and are on pace to stay unmarried at rates higher than previous generations, statistics show.
- Mutations in FTO, dopamine receptor genes increase risk of obesity, diabetes
In the development of obesity and diabetes, signals from the brain play an important role. Here an important neurotransmitter is dopamine. Scientists have investigated how mutations in the obesity risk gene FTO and variants of the dopamine D2 receptor gene interact. Their results suggest that people in whom both genes are altered have a higher risk of developing obesity and diabetes.
- Neural signature for fibromyalgia may aid diagnosis, treatment
A brain signature that identifies fibromyalgia sufferers with 93 percent accuracy has been discovered by researchers, a potential breakthrough for future clinical diagnosis and treatment of the highly prevalent condition. Fibromyalgia is commonly defined as chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety and mood disorders, with significantly higher occurrence rates in women than in men.
- Risk-taking behavior in teens caused by imbalanced brain activity
Adolescents among humans and non-human animals alike are more inclined to engage in heightened risk-taking behavior, exploration and novelty seeking. Although these attributes provide adaptive value in enabling individuals to gain importance in the world, including independence from parents, if taken too far, this tendency could lead to potentially dangerous behavior, including drug use, harmful drinking, addiction, unsafe sex, and risky driving, which may result in unintended injuries, violence and/or even premature death. A new study demonstrates for the first time, the causal relationship between behavioral control and a specific imbalance in brain function that exists during adolescence.