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- Immersed in violence: How 3-D gaming affects video game players
Playing violent video games in 3-D makes everything seem more real – and that may have troubling consequences for players, a new study reveals. Researchers found that people who played violent video games in 3-D showed more evidence of anger afterward than did people who played using traditional 2-D systems -- even those with large screens.
- Impressions shaped by facial appearance foster biased decisions
Research in recent years has shown that people associate specific facial traits with an individual's personality. People consistently associate trustworthiness, competence, dominance, and friendliness with specific facial traits. According to a new article, people rely on these subtle facial traits to make important decisions, from voting for a political candidate to convicting a suspect for a crime. The authors present its real-world consequences and discuss potential ways of overcoming it.
- Significant rise in e-cigarette use among youth in Poland
Use of electronic cigarettes among students in Poland has increased dramatically, rising more than threefold in just the last three years, research finds. Electronic cigarettes are battery-operated products that heat a liquid solution that vaporizes nicotine and other additives, which are then inhaled by the user.
- Research highlights extent, effects of school violence in U.S.
Six percent of U.S. children and youth missed a day of school over the course of a year because they were the victim of violence or abuse at school. "This study really highlights the way school violence can interfere with learning," says the lead author. "Too many kids are missing school because they do not feel safe."
- Survey shows what Americans fear most
The Chapman Survey on American Fears included 1,500 participants from across the nation and all walks of life. The research team leading this effort pared the information down into four basic categories: personal fears, crime, natural disasters and fear factors.
- Fight against Alzheimer's disease: New research on walnuts
An new animal study reveals potential brain-health benefits of a walnut-enriched diet. Researchers suggest that a diet including walnuts may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, slowing the progression of, or preventing Alzheimer’s disease.
- Animal therapy reduces anxiety, loneliness symptoms in college students
Animal-assisted therapy can reduce symptoms of anxiety and loneliness among college students, according to researchers who provided animal-assisted therapy to 55 students in a group setting at a small arts college. They found a 60 percent decrease in self-reported anxiety and loneliness symptoms following animal-assisted therapy, in which a registered therapy dog was under the supervision of a licensed mental health practitioner.
- Seven ways to feel full without overeating
Not feeling full after or between meals can result in overeating. Eating certain nutrients and foods may help curb appetite and keep one feeling fuller longer, according to an expert.
- Immune proteins moonlight to regulate brain-cell connections
When it comes to the brain, 'more is better' seems like an obvious assumption. But in the case of synapses, which are the connections between brain cells, too many or too few can both disrupt brain function. Researchers recently found an immune-system protein that moonlights in the nervous system to help regulate the number of synapses, and could play an unexpected role in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes and autism.
- Memory decline among menopausal women could be next research frontier for hypnotic relaxation therapy
Memory decline — a frequent complaint of menopausal women — potentially could be lessened by hypnotic relaxation therapy, say researchers who already have done studies showing that such therapy eases hot flashes, improves sleep and reduces stress in menopausal women.
- Hungry or not, kids will eat treats
Even though they are not hungry, children as young as three will find high-energy treats too tempting to refuse, new research has confirmed. In a study of three and four year olds, 100 per cent of children opted for a sweet or savory snack despite eating a filling healthy lunch only 15 minutes prior.
- Child's poor decision-making skills can predict later behavior problems, research shows
Children who show poor decision-making skills at age 10 or 11 may be more likely to experience interpersonal and behavioral difficulties that have the potential to lead to high-risk health behavior in their teen years, according to a new study.
- Sleep duration affects risk for ulcerative colitis
If you are not getting the recommended seven to eight hours of sleep each night, you may be at increased risk of developing ulcerative colitis, according to a new study.
- Analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs may have impact on depression
Ordinary over the counter painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs purchased from pharmacies may also be effective in the treatment of people suffering of depression, as demonstrated by the largest ever meta-analysis based on 14 international studies with a total 6,262 patients who either suffered from depression or had individual symptoms of depression.
- Tarantula venom illuminates electrical activity in live cells
A cellular probe that combines a tarantula toxin with a fluorescent compound has been developed to help scientists observe electrical activity in neurons and other cells. This is the first time researchers have been able to visually observe these electrical signaling proteins turn on without genetic modification.
- Even depressed people believe that life gets better
Adults typically believe that life gets better -- today is better than yesterday was and tomorrow will be even better than today. A new study shows that even depressed individuals believe in a brighter future, but this optimistic belief may not lead to better outcomes.
- A rich vocabulary can protect against cognitive impairment
Some people suffer incipient dementia as they get older. To make up for this loss, the brain's cognitive reserve is put to the test. Researchers have studied what factors can help to improve this ability and they conclude that having a higher level of vocabulary is one such factor. 'Cognitive reserve' is the name given to the brain's capacity to compensate for the loss of its functions. This reserve cannot be measured directly; rather, it is calculated through indicators believed to increase this capacity.
- Key factor in transition from moderate to problem drinking
A tiny segment of genetic material known as a microRNA plays a central role in the transition from moderate drinking to binge drinking and other alcohol use disorders, researchers have discovered.
- For prescription drug addiction treatment, buprenorphine maintenance trumps detoxification
For treating patients with prescription opioid dependence in primary care, buprenorphine maintenance therapy is superior to detoxification, according to a new study.
- Mental rest and reflection boost learning, study suggests
A new study, which may have implications for approaches to education, finds that brain mechanisms engaged when people allow their minds to rest and reflect on things they've learned before may boost later learning.
- Untangling the biological effects of blue light
Blue light can both set the mood and set in motion important biological responses. Researchers have teased apart the separate biological responses of the human eye to blue light, revealing an unexpected contest for control.
- Biochemical cause of seasonal depression (SAD) confirmed by researchers
New research confirms why some people suffer from the winter blues while others get through the winter without any problems. A longitudinal study has found that that people with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) show significant seasonal differences in the way they regulate the neurotransmitter serotonin in comparison to the majority of the population.
- No relationship between moderate adolescent cannabis use, exam results or IQ, large study shows
A large UK study has found that occasional adolescent cannabis use does not lead to poorer educational and intellectual performance, but that heavy cannabis use is associated with slightly poorer exam results at age 16.
- See-through sensors open new window into the brain
Developing invisible implantable medical sensor arrays, a team of engineers has overcome a major technological hurdle in researchers’ efforts to understand the brain. The team has now described its technology, which has applications in fields ranging from neuroscience to cardiac care and even contact lenses.
- Stress-related inflammation may increase risk for depression
Preexisting differences in the sensitivity of a key part of each individual’s immune system to stress confer a greater risk of developing stress-related depression or anxiety, scientists report. Inflammation is the immune system's response to infection or disease, and has long been linked to stress.
- Scientists restore hearing in noise-deafened mice, pointing way to new therapies
Scientists have restored the hearing of mice partly deafened by noise, using advanced tools to boost the production of a key protein in their ears. By demonstrating the importance of the protein, called NT3, in maintaining communication between the ears and brain, these new findings pave the way for research in humans that could improve treatment of hearing loss caused by noise exposure and normal aging.
- Largest study of Hispanics/Latinos finds depression, anxiety rates vary widely among groups
Rates of depression and anxiety vary widely among different segments of the U.S. Hispanic and Latino population, with the highest prevalence of depressive symptoms in Puerto Ricans, according to a new report. The researchers’ findings also suggest that depression and anxiety may be undertreated among Hispanics and Latinos, particularly if they are uninsured.
- Three-minute assessment successfully identifies delirium in hospitalized elders
A brief and simple method to help hospital care providers recognize delirium in elderly patients has been developed by researchers. Delirium is a state of confusion that develops suddenly, often following an acute medical illness, a surgical procedure or a hospitalization. Although delirium is estimated to complicate hospital stays for over 2.5 million elderly individuals in the U.S. each year, this common condition often goes undetected. The end result can be serious complications with sometimes devastating consequences for vulnerable hospitalized elders.
- Positive subliminal messages on aging improve physical functioning in elderly
Older individuals who are subliminally exposed to positive stereotypes about aging showed improved physical functioning that can last for several weeks, a new study.
- Siblings of children with autism can show signs at 18 months
About 20 percent of younger siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder will develop the condition by age 3. A new study has found that 57 percent of these younger siblings who later develop the condition already showed symptoms at age 18 months.
- See-through, one-atom-thick, carbon electrodes powerful tool to study brain disorders
A graphene, one-atom-thick microelectrode now solves a major problem for investigators looking at brain circuitry. Pinning down the details of how individual neural circuits operate in epilepsy and other brain disorders requires real-time observation of their locations, firing patterns, and other factors.
- Sport in old age can stimulate brain fitness, but effect decreases with advancing age
Physical exercise in old age can improve brain perfusion as well as certain memory skills, say neuroscientists who studied men and women aged between 60 and 77. In younger individuals regular training on a treadmill tended to improve cerebral blood flow and visual memory. However, trial participants who were older than 70 years of age tended to show no benefit of exercise.
- User-friendly electronic 'Eyecane' enhances navigational abilities for blind
White Canes provide low-tech assistance to the visually impaired, but some blind people object to their use because they are cumbersome, fail to detect elevated obstacles, or require long training periods to master. Electronic travel aids (ETAs) have the potential to improve navigation for the blind, but early versions had disadvantages that limited widespread adoption. A new ETA, the "EyeCane," expands the world of its users, allowing them to better estimate distance, navigate their environment, and avoid obstacles, according to a new study
- Why your brain makes you reach for junk food
Will that be a pizza for you or will you go for a salad? Choosing what you eat is not simply a matter of taste, conclude scientists in a new study. As you glance over a menu or peruse the shelves in a supermarket, your brain is making decisions based more on a food's caloric content.
- Brain activity provides evidence for internal 'calorie counter'
As you think about how a food will taste and whether it's nutritious, an internal calorie counter of sorts is also evaluating each food based on its caloric density, according to findings from a new neuroimaging study.
- Fairness is in the brain, scientists say
Ever wondered how people figure out what is fair? Look to the brain for the answer. According to a new brain study, people appreciate fairness in much the same way as they appreciate money for themselves, and also that fairness is not necessarily that everybody gets the same income.
- Sexual preference for masculine men, feminine women is an urban habit
A groundbreaking new study suggests that, rather than being passed down through a long process of social and sexual selection, preferences for masculine men and feminine women is a relatively new habit that has only emerged in modern, urbanized societies.
- New antidepressant: Rapid agent restores pleasure-seeking ahead of other antidepressant action
A drug being studied as a fast-acting mood-lifter restored pleasure-seeking behavior independent of -- and ahead of -- its other antidepressant effects. Within 40 minutes after a single infusion of ketamine, treatment-resistant depressed bipolar disorder patients experienced a reversal of a key symptom -- loss of interest in pleasurable activities -- which lasted up to 14 days. Brain scans traced the agent's action to boosted activity in areas at the front and deep in the right hemisphere of the brain.
- Digital native fallacy: Teachers still know better when it comes to using technology
A new study looks at how teachers and students use technology inside and outside the classroom. It turns out that members of today's younger Net Generation aren't more tech savvy than their teachers just because they were born into a world full of computers. In fact, if it weren't for the coaxing and support of their educators, many students would never use their electronic devices for more than playing games or listening to music, say experts.
- Design of micro, nanoparticles to improve treatments for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's
Techniques are being developed to deliver correctly and effectively certain drugs to treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Both disorders affect the neurones: their structure and function is lost, and this in turn leads to the deterioration in the patient's motor, cognitive, sensory and emotional functions.
- Cold sores increase risk of dementia, research suggests
Infection with herpes simplex virus increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease, researchers claim. "Our results clearly show that there is a link between infections of herpes simplex virus and the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. This also means that we have new opportunities to develop treatment forms to stop the disease," says one of the researchers behind the study.
- Head injury causes immune system to attack brain, new study finds
Scientists have uncovered a surprising way to reduce the brain damage caused by head injuries -- stopping the body's immune system from killing brain cells. A new study showed that in experiments on mice, an immune-based treatment reduced the size of brain lesions. The authors suggest that if the findings apply to humans, this could help prevent brain damage from accidents, and protect players of contact sports like football, rugby and boxing.
- Head Start program benefits parents
Head Start programs may help low-income parents improve their educational status, according to a new study. The study is one of the first to examine whether a child's participation in the federal program benefits mothers and fathers -- in particular parents' educational attainment and employment.
- American Alzheimer's plan milestones must be strengthened to meet goal by 2025, experts say
The research milestones in the US Government's National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease must be broadened in scope, increased in scale, and adequately funded in order to successfully achieve this goal, a workgroup of nearly 40 Alzheimer's researchers and scientists says.
- Heart rate may predict survival, brain function in comatose cardiac arrest survivors
Patients with sinus bradycardia during therapeutic hypothermia had a 50 to 60 percent lower mortality rate at 180 days than those with no sinus bradycardia, a study has found. The same research also found that sinus bradycardia was directly associated with a better neurological status 180 days after the arrest.
- Aspirin shown to benefit schizophrenia treatment
Some anti-inflammatory medicines, such as aspirin, estrogen, and Fluimucil, can improve the efficacy of existing schizophrenia treatments, new research suggests. Research has shown that the immune system is linked to certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Research has shown that "antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs could not only reduce symptoms associated with the disorders but also prevent the appearance of neurobiological abnormalities and transition to psychosis if given early during brain development," experts say.
- Fish intake associated with boost to antidepressant response
Up to half of patients who suffer from major depression do not respond to treatment with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Now a group of researchers has carried out a study that shows that increasing fatty fish intake appears to increase the response rate in patients who do not respond to antidepressants.
- Panic attacks associated with fear of bright daylight
Fear of bright daylight is associated with panic disorder, according to new research. Panic disorder is where a person has recurring and regular panic attacks. It appears to be about twice as common in women as it is in men. Previous studies have shown that there is a strong seasonal component in panic disorder, but this is the first study to look specifically at panic disorder patients' reactions to light.
- New test to help brain injury victims recover
A new assessment can help patients suffering from traumatic brain injury, aneurism, dementia, stroke and more between ages 18-74, experts say. The test is suitable for measuring concentration, memory retention, motor performance, language skills and spatial awareness in patients.
- Irritable bowel syndrome: Males report more social stress than females
One of the few studies to examine gender differences among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has found that males with the condition experience more interpersonal difficulties than do females with the condition. “Our findings underscore the significance of studying gender-based differences in how people experience the same disease or condition,” says one expert.
- Highly connected CEOs more likely to broker mergers and acquisitions that harm firms, study shows
A new study shows that CEOs with extensive social connections initiate mergers and acquisitions more frequently, and these deals result in greater financial losses for both the acquiring firm and the combined entity.
- Research reveals likelihood, onset of multiple sclerosis diagnosis among patients with inflammatory eye disease
The results of the largest retrospective study of multiple sclerosis (MS) in uveitis patients has revealed that nearly 60 percent of patients with both diseases were diagnosed with each within a five-year span. While it has long been known that there is an association between the eye condition and MS, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the relative onset of uveitis and MS and to calculate the likelihood of an MS diagnosis among uveitis patients.
- Gene duplications associated with autism evolved recently in human history
Human geneticists have discovered that a region of the genome associated with autism contains genetic variation that evolved in the last 250,000 years, after the divergence of humans from ancient hominids, and likely plays an important role in disease.
- Women more likely to develop anxiety and depression after heart attack
Patients with depression are nearly 6 times more likely to die within 6 months after a heart attack than those without depression. The increased risk of death in patients with depression persists up to 18 months after the heart attack. But despite the fact that post-heart-attack depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognized and under-treated, scientists say.
- I have anxiety, why is my doctor prescribing an antipsychotic? New drug naming system unveiled
What’s in a name? Doctors have found that the name of the drug you are prescribed significantly influences how the patient sees the treatment. Now in a significant shift, the world’s major psychiatry organizations are proposing to completely change the terminology of the drugs used in mental disorders shifting it from symptom based (e.g. antidepressant, antipsychotic etc.) to pharmacologically based (e.g. focusing on pharmacological target (serotonin, dopamine etc.) and the relevant mode of action). This will mean that patient will no longer have the confusion of being prescribed a drug for what appears to be an unrelated condition, but also means that drug names will be more understandable to doctors.
- Birth season affects your mood in later life, new research suggests
New research shows that the season you are born has a significant impact on your risk of developing mood disorders. People born at certain times of year may have a greater chance of developing certain types of affective temperaments, which in turn can lead to mood disorders.
- Why depression and aging are linked to increased disease risk
New research shows that both aging and depression are associated with a biochemical change in a gene on chromosome 6, the FKBP5 gene. This means that we may have found one reason for why risk for aging-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders, are worse in chronically stressed and depressed individuals.
- Pathological gambling is associated with altered opioid system in the brain
All humans have a natural opioid system in the brain. Now new research has found that the opioid system of pathological gamblers responds differently to those of normal healthy volunteers.
- Vitamin D deficiency increases poor brain function after cardiac arrest by sevenfold
Patients with vitamin D deficiency were more likely to have a poor neurological outcome or die after sudden cardiac arrest than those who were not deficient. Nearly one-third of the patients who were deficient in vitamin D had died 6 months after their cardiac arrest, whereas all patients with sufficient vitamin D levels were still alive.
- Women driven by status, wealth rather than wanting babies, study suggests
Women are more driven to seek wealth and status than they are to reproduce, a new study suggests. The research says although low fertility may seem to go against traditional ideas about evolutionary success, a woman will delay and reduce her fertility if it brings her opportunities for higher status. The findings are based on interviews with 9,000 women in Mongolia, a country that underwent a sudden transition from a Soviet-style state to mass privatization.