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- Mapping the circuit of our internal clock
Researchers have shown for the first time how neurons in the SCN are connected to each other, shedding light on this vital area of the brain. Understanding this structure -- and how it responds to disruption -- is important for tackling illnesses like diabetes and posttraumatic stress disorder. The scientists have also found that disruption to these rhythms such as shifts in work schedules or blue light exposure at night can negatively impact overall health.
- Autism and cancer share a remarkable number of risk genes in common
Autism and cancer share more than 40 risk genes, suggesting that common mechanisms underlying the functions of some of these genes could conceivably be leveraged to develop therapies not just for cancer but for autism as well, an extensive assessment has found.
- Early warning: Current Japanese encephalitis vaccine might not protect
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis (infection of the brain) in Asia. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis (JE) which can cause death or serious long-term disability, and WHO recommends JEV vaccination in all areas where the disease is recognized as a public health priority. A new study suggests that current vaccines may fail to protect individuals against an emerging strain of the virus.
- Children with autism learn new words much like others do, study finds
Children with autism are capable of learning new words the same way any child would—by following someone’s gaze as they name an object. They just take longer to pick up the skill, new research suggests.
- Delayed onset adulthood keeps young Brits away from ballot box
The poor voter turnout of young Brits can be explained by the delayed transition to adulthood, says new research. Research shows that if today's young adults were as 'mature' as young people from the pre-war generation, voter turnout among young people in the UK these days would be 12 percentage points higher.
- Assessment of total choline intakes in the United States
Choline is an essential nutrient and plays a critical role in brain development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, liver function, and maintenance of a healthy metabolism. Researchers have analyzed the usual intakes of choline and compared them with the dietary reference intakes for U.S. residents aged ?2 years. Choline can be found naturally in foods including eggs, liver, beef, salmon, shrimp, cauliflower, spinach, Brussels sprouts, and breast milk. Symptoms of a choline deficiency may include low energy levels, memory loss, cognitive decline, muscle aches, nerve damage, and mood changes or disorders.
- Transplanted nerve cells survive a quarter of a century in a Parkinson's disease patient
In the late 1980s and over the 1990s, researchers pioneered the transplantation of new nerve cells into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease. The outcomes proved for the first time that transplanted nerve cells can survive and function in the diseased human brain. Some patients showed marked improvement after the transplantation while others showed moderate or no relief of symptoms. A small number of patients suffered unwanted side-effects in the form of involuntary movements.
- Experimental Alzheimer's drug reverses genetic changes thought to spur the disease
When given to old rats, the drug, which is known to affect signaling by the neurotransmitter glutamate, reversed many age-related changes that occur in a brain region key to learning and memory. The drug also produced effects opposing those seen in the brains of Alzheimer's patients.
- One in four patients with COPD suffer from depression
One in four patients with COPD suffer from depressive symptoms, new research show, and if not treated, those symptoms can have a negative effect on their overall health and treatment effectiveness.
- Imodium abuse: Anti-diarrhea medication containing loperamide dangerous for self-treatment of opiod addiction
The over-the-counter anti-diarrhea medication Imodium, or its key ingredient loperamide, is increasingly being abused by people attempting to self-treat their opioid addiction, with sometime fatal results.
- Breast cancer patients upbeat on body changes
Body image identity varies among women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer with many rejecting mainstream body shape ideals, new research shows.
- Depression worsens COPD symptoms
Debilitating symptoms from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can worsen in patients who also experience depression, research suggests. Patients who had pre-existing depression or developed depression after COPD diagnosis were more likely to experience heightened COPD symptoms, such as increased breathlessness, reduced exercise tolerance and hopelessness.
- Adults with bipolar disorder at equal risk for anxiety or depression following mania
Adults with bipolar disorder are just as likely to develop anxiety as depression following an episode of mania, according to data from a national survey of more than 34,000 adults.
- US National Autism Indicators Report 2016: Vocational rehabilitation
Researchers looked at Vocational Rehabilitation, a federally funded employment program for people with disabilities that is administered by each state. They found that adults with autism are increasingly applying for services, but most are getting jobs that pay well below the poverty line.
- What readers think about computer-generated texts
An experimental study has found that readers rate texts generated by algorithms more credible than texts written by real journalists.
- Group activities reduced depressive symptoms among older people with dementia
Both a high-intensity functional exercise programme and a non-exercise group activity, conducted among older care facility residents with dementia, reduced high levels of depressive symptoms. However, exercise had no superior effect on depression, according to a new dissertation.
- Placebo effects in women are boosted by vasopressin
A new study suggests that women are particularly susceptible to the pain-relieving placebo effect of vasopressin. Placebos are used to help accurately measure clinical responses/outcomes when studying the effects of medications, therapies, and other treatments. The well-known "placebo effect" is a phenomenon whereby a patient's condition improves or a patient experiences side effects despite having received a "fake" treatment.
- Yoga, aquatic exercise can help combat MS symptoms
Exercise can have a positive influence on certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, say researchers. Patients who do yoga and aquatic exercise suffer less from fatigue, depression and paresthesia, as reported by researchers.
- Social clubs fill gap in dementia support
Community-based social groups could play a crucial role in empowering people with early-onset dementia, according to new research. The research focused on an independently run program known as Paul's Club, which offers social and recreational activities three days a week out of a hotel in downtown Vancouver. Members range in age from mid-40s to late 60s.
- Double-blinded randomized controlled trial of the Xiao procedure in children
The results have been released of a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of the 'Xiao procedure' in children with spina bifida who suffer from neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The Xiao procedure was touted for many years in China as being more than 80 percent effective in such patients. In the present study population, the researchers found the procedure to be ineffective in all patients at producing bladder control.
- Children react physically to stress from their social networks
Research has shown the significance of social relationships in influencing adult human behavior and health; however, little is known about how children's perception of their social networks correlates with stress and how it may influence development. Now, a research team has determined that children and adolescents physically react to their social networks and the stress those networks may cause.
- Economy flyers unite! Research shows air rage a product of class difference
We blame air rage on long flight delays, shrinking seats and a general decline in civility. But the first empirical research study into the phenomenon pegs another culprit -- class inequality -- for the reason passengers lose it when taking to the so-called friendly skies.
- Stiffening of the arteries detected in multi-ethnic study of young adults
Stiffening of the arteries usually related to aging can be detected in early adulthood using a method known as pulse wave velocity, according to a new study. Alongside a lack of physical activity, stresses such as perceived racism were also associated with stiffening of the arteries of the 21-23 year-olds who took part in the multi-ethnic study.
- Origin of synaptic pruning process linked to learning, autism and schizophrenia identified
Researchers have identified a brain receptor that appears to initiate adolescent synaptic pruning, a process believed necessary for learning, but one that appears to go awry in both autism and schizophrenia.
- Psychiatric symptoms impact mental health court engagement
People living with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. Interventions to help this population, such as mental health courts, are becoming popular across the country. New research finds that for mental health courts to be successful, every professional engaged in the process should be aware of the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and participant engagement within the system and connect participants with comprehensive treatment and services as early as possible.
- Study underscores need for health interventions for single parent households in urban subsidized housing programs
Single parents who participate in a housing support program in an urban setting with high levels of community violence had significant symptoms of stress and depression, a new study indicates.
- First structural views of the NMDA receptor in action will aid drug development
Researchers have obtained images of the NMDA receptor in active, non-active, and inhibited states. Understanding how NMDA receptors activate is critical in designing novel therapeutic compounds for schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's and other illnesses.
- Children with ADHD may benefit from following healthy behaviors, new study suggests
Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder follow fewer healthy lifestyle behaviors than non-ADHD youth. ADHD youth may benefit from improving lifestyle choices such as increasing water consumption, decreasing screen time and getting at least one hour of physical activity per day.
- The social lives of the elderly mirror how they grow older
Small changes in the social lives of older people are early red flags showing that their thought processes and brain functioning could be on the decline.
- Concussion outcomes differ among football players from youth to college
Concussions in high school football had the highest average number of reported symptoms and high school football players had the highest proportion of concussions with a return-to-play time of at least 30 days compared with youth and college players, according to a new article.
- Neuroscientists find evidence for 'visual stereotyping'
The stereotypes we hold can influence our brain's visual system, prompting us to see others' faces in ways that conform to these stereotypes, neuroscientists have found.
- Adult brain prunes branched connections of new neurons
A new study is first to closely follow development of new neurons in the adult brain, giving potential new insight into neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.
- Expand prescribing of buprenorphine for opioid abuse? Experts weigh pros and cons
Buprenorphine is a critical part of treatment for the growing epidemic of opioid abuse -- but also carries the potential for misuse and diversion. The debate over whether 'to expand or not to expand' prescribing of buprenorphine for opioid abuse is discussed in a new expert review.
- Ibrutinib: Indication of added benefit in one of three therapeutic indications
No added benefit has been proven for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Waldenström macroglobulinaemia. Certain patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma benefit from the drug.
- Neuroscientists discover previously unknown function of cannabinoid receptor
In the brain, there is a delicate interplay of signaling substances and cellular activity. Scientists have now identified another key player within this ensemble. In a laboratory study they found that the 'cannabinoid type 2 receptor' influences information processing inside the hippocampus. The research results might help advance our understanding of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's, say the authors.
- Breast milk linked to significant early brain growth in preemies
Feeding premature babies mostly breast milk during the first month of life appears to spur more robust brain growth. Those preemies whose daily diets were at least 50 percent breast milk had more brain tissue and cortical-surface area by their due dates than premature babies who consumed significantly less breast milk.
- One-third of autistic children likely to wander, disappear
More than one-third of children with autism spectrum disorders have wandered away from a safe environment within the past 12 months, according to new findings. The findings are from a review of CDC data on 1,420 children ages 6 to 17 with ASDs.
- Children are diagnosed with autism at younger ages since push for universal screening
Researchers say children with autism who were born before the 2007 recommendation by the American Academy of Pediatrics that all children be screened for the disorder at the 18- and 24-month well child visits were diagnosed significantly later than they are today. The findings suggest the policy may help identify children with autism sooner so they can benefit from early intervention.
- Aerial spraying to combat mosquitoes linked to increased risk of autism in children
New research suggests that the use of airplanes to spray anti-mosquito pesticides may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder and developmental delays among children.
- Alcohol brand placement on TV linked with teens' brand preferences and drinking behaviors
While tobacco companies have not been allowed to buy product placement in television shows since 2000, alcohol brands continue to self-regulate their marketing in media. But new research shows how strongly alcohol brand placement relates to the drinking behavior of underage youth suggests more regulation may be needed.
- Complete rest until symptom-free after concussion may not be best for recovery
Rest has long been the cornerstone of concussion treatment. For sports-related head injuries, for example, current guidelines say children should avoid returning to play -- and all other physical activity -- until all concussion symptoms such as headaches are gone. New research however, suggests those who exercise within a week of injury, regardless of symptoms, have nearly half the rate of concussion symptoms that linger more than a month.
- Factors that help children thrive in the face of adversity
Research shows that people who experience four or more adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as economic hardship, exposure to violence or the death of a loved one, are more likely to have lasting physical and mental health problems. But new research suggests that certain family, social and community assets may boost a child's chances of flourishing in the face of adversity.
- Children of gay fathers are well adjusted
Compared to a national sample of heterosexual parents, gay fathers report similar parenting behavior and measures of wellbeing in their children, according to new research.
- Legalization of marijuana in Washington had no effect on teens' access to drug
Despite concerns that legalizing marijuana use for adults would make it easier for adolescents to get ahold of it, a new study in Washington State shows that teens find it no easier now than before the law was passed in 2012.
- One in six children hospitalized for lung inflammation positive for marijuana exposure
A new study found that one in six infants and toddlers admitted to a Colorado hospital with coughing, wheezing and other symptoms of bronchiolitis tested positive for marijuana exposure.
- Stress and depression is linked to HPV-related health problems
New research suggests that stress and depression play a significant role in whether a woman with human papillomavirus (HPV) can get rid of her infection or not. HPV that lingers in a woman's system eventually can lead to cervical cancer.
- Combination of face-to-face and online bullying may pack a powerful punch
Bullying and taunts that may have once stayed in the schoolyard increasingly spill over into text messages and social media. A new study shows that the combined effect of both face-to-face and cyber-bullying may have a powerful effect on adolescents, more than doubling the odds that victims show aggressive behaviors themselves such as verbal hostility, physical fighting and damaging property.
- Mental health diagnoses rise significantly for military children
Mirroring national estimates, a new study found the percentage of children enrolled in the US Military Healthcare System diagnosed with and treated for mental health disorders increased significantly during the past 15 years.
- Parents' presence at bedside found to decrease neonatal abstinence syndrome severity
New research suggests a key to easing the opioid withdrawal symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome is to ensure parents can spend plenty of time at the baby's bedside during treatment. NAS is an increasingly common condition infants develop after opioid exposure during pregnancy, with symptoms such as tremors, intense irritability, poor feeding, vomiting, diarrhea and poor sleep. It often requires weeks of hospitalization and pharmacologic treatment.
- Depression symptoms that steadily increase in later life predict higher dementia risk, study shows
Depression symptoms that steadily increase in older adults are more strongly linked to dementia than any other types of depression, and may indicate the early stages of the disease, according to the first ever long-term study to examine the link between dementia and the course of depression.
- Surgery for chronic temporal headaches: Simplified approach shows good results
A modified surgical technique may provide a simpler approach to the surgical treatment for one type of chronic headache, according to new research.
- Finding sheds light on what may kill neurons after stroke
Strokes, seizures, traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia: these conditions can cause persistent, widespread acidity around neurons in the brain. But exactly how that acidity affects brain function isn't well understood.
- Benefits of stem cells for treating spinal cord injuries assessed
Stem cell therapy is a rapidly evolving and promising treatment for spinal-cord injuries. According to a new literature review, different types of stem cells vary in their ability to help restore function, and an ideal treatment protocol remains unclear pending further clinical research.
- Language study reveals best words to use when selling products
A “gent” can expect to pay twice as much as a “man” and “authentic” products fetch up to 50 per cent more than “genuine” ones, according to unique academic analysis of the language used on eBay.
- Health system fails to prepare patients for reality of psoriatic arthritis
People with psoriatic arthritis have told researchers about the condition’s deeply damaging mental effects and how healthcare services failed to prepare them for its reality, a new English study concludes.
- Hormone, neurotransmitter systems disturbed in alcoholics' brains
The brain tissue of people with alcohol dependence shows a variety of changes compared to non-alcoholic control persons. All alcoholics' brains share some characteristics, but some are exclusive to the brain tissue of anxiety-prone type 1 alcoholics or impulsive type 2 alcoholics, according to a recent study.
- Hospital self-harm cases have steadily risen among men in England since 2008
The number of hospital cases of self-inflicted harm, such as cutting and overdosing on prescription meds, has risen steadily since 2008 in England among men, reveals new research.
- Salts in the brain control our sleep-wake cycle
A new epoch-making discovery has been made, which may prove decisive to future brain research. The level of salts in the brain plays a critical role in whether we are asleep or awake. This discovery may be of great importance to research on psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and convulsive fits from lack of sleep as well as post-anaesthetization confusion, according to experts.
- Chances are you don’t remember what you just retweeted
Research finds retweeting or otherwise sharing information creates a 'cognitive overload' that interferes with learning and retaining what you've just seen. Worse yet, that overload can spill over and diminish performance in the real world.
- Mental health evaluations improved
A new assessment tool has been developed to gauge the risk that someone with a mental illness will commit a crime. It could also speed up long-delayed competency evaluations for people awaiting trial.