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- New oral anticoagulants provide same stroke prevention as warfarin but cause less bleeding
The new oral anticoagulants provide the same stroke prevention as warfarin but cause less intracranial bleeding, reports an observational study in more than 43,000 patients.
- Alcohol-related hospitalization associated with doubled stroke risk in atrial fibrillation
Alcohol-related hospitalization is associated with a doubled risk of ischemic stroke risk in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, according to a new study. The observational study was conducted in more than 25,000 non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients at low risk of stroke.
- Smartphone detects atrial fibrillation with existing hardware
Smartphones can be used to detect atrial fibrillation with existing hardware, according to new research. A low-cost application has been developed that uses the phone's own accelerometer and gyroscope to check for atrial fibrillation.
- Activity tracker uses heart rate to personalize amount of exercise needed to prevent early death
A novel activity tracker has been developed that uses heart rate data to personalize the amount of exercise needed to reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.
- Impulsivity levels help identify at-risk offspring of alcoholics
Researchers know that youth with a family history of alcoholism have a greater risk of developing an alcohol use disorder; this heightened vulnerability may be due to impulsive behavior. For this study, researchers examined “waiting” impulsivity – a tendency toward prematurely responding to a reward, and previously associated with a predisposition to drinking. The study sample comprised young, moderate-to-heavy social drinkers who were either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Impulsivity was assessed after an alcoholic or non-alcoholic drink.
- Businesses that show commitment to sustainability inspire greener customers
Spending a little to prove a commitment to sustainability can help tourism industry businesses such as hotels inspire customers to conserve resources -- and save money in the process, according to new research. The study found that hotel guests' willingness to conserve resources -- such as turning off lights, reusing towels, or setting the thermostat at a specific temperature -- is affected by how 'green' they perceive the hotel to be.
- Visual nudge can disrupt recall of what things look like
Interfering with your vision makes it harder to describe what you know about the appearance of even common objects, according to researchers.
- Scientists uncover common cell signaling pathway awry in some types of autism
Skin cells derived from autistic donors grew faster than those from control subjects, and activated their genes in distinct patterns, scientists report. Genes related to cell growth were unusually active, leading to more cells but fewer connections between them. This can cause faulty cell networks unable to properly transmit signals in the brain and enlarged heads during early development, say the researchers.
- Sertraline, brand named Zoloft, improves functioning in young children with fragile X
Treatment with sertraline may provide nominal but important improvements in cognition and social participation in very young children with fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and the leading single-gene cause of autism, a study has found.
- Could the paleo diet benefit heart health?
Findings from a small study suggest that people who followed the Paleo diet for only eight weeks experienced positive effects on heart health.
- Mechanism identified through which lead may harm neural cells, children's neurodevelopment
Researchers have identified a potential molecular mechanism through which lead, a pervasive environmental toxin, may harm neural stem cells and neurodevelopment in children.
- Bacteria in smokeless tobacco products may be a health concern
Several species of bacteria found in smokeless tobacco products have been associated with opportunistic infections, according to a new paper. An estimated 8 million people use smokeless tobacco products in the US. But there has been little data on the microbial populations that exist within these products.
- Insecticide ryanodine: Building a chemical from the ground up
Chemists have significantly improved upon the synthesis of a molecule related to muscle and neuronal function. A research team has been busy trying to crack the puzzle of the insecticide ryanodine, a complex molecule first isolated from a tropical plant in the 1940s. Ryanodine paralyzes insects by binding to a class of calcium-channel receptors called ryanodine receptors. In humans, these receptors play critical roles in muscle and neuronal function.
- Next steps in understanding brain function
As scientists around the globe join efforts to understand brain function, we enter the era of Big Data and stir up debate on how science is done and how it can affect us all.
- Banning tobacco sales near schools could reduce socioeconomic disparities, new study shows
Banning tobacco sales within 1,000 feet of schools could reduce socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco density across neighborhoods, according to a study.
- Stiff arteries linked with memory problems, mouse study suggests
Using a new mouse model, researchers have found that stiffer arteries can also negatively affect memory and other critical brain processes. The findings may eventually reveal how arterial stiffness leads to Alzheimer’s and other diseases involving dementia.
- Sights set on the next generation of shuttle peptides to target the brain
There is a new and emerging field of drug transporters that have the capacity to reach the brain more efficiently, say researchers, bringing together chemistry, pharmacy and biomedicine.
- Acute virus infection associated with sensory polyneuropathy, Zika experts say
A group of researchers has described the first case of sensory polyneuropathy associated with acute Zika virus infection. A large percentage of people suffering from Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or show only mild symptoms. But potential neurological complications can be dramatic.
- Scientists shed new light on the role of calcium in learning, memory
While calcium’s importance for our bones and teeth is well known, its role in neurons—in particular, its effects on processes such as learning and memory—has been less well defined. A new study offers insights into how calcium in mitochondria -- the powerhouse of all cells -- can impact the development of the brain and adult cognition.
- Novel inhibitory brain receptor may be mechanism for remission of epilepsy in adolescence
At the onset of puberty, the emergence of a novel inhibitory brain receptor reduces seizure-like activity in a mouse model of epilepsy.
- Physician advice to patients on e-cigarettes varies, reveals knowledge gaps, study shows
Researchers analyzed an online medical forum to better understand what patients want to know about e-cigarettes and how doctors respond to those questions.
- US teens more likely to vape for flavorings than nicotine in e-cigarettes
US teens are more likely to vape for the flavorings found in e-cigarettes rather than nicotine, suggests research. It is widely assumed that teen vapers are vaping nicotine, so in a bid to find out exactly what substances they are vaping, the researchers quizzed almost 15,000 students about their vaping experiences.
- Neuroscientists stand up for basic cell biology research
Clinical trials and translational medicine have certainly given people hope and rapid pathways to cures for some of humankind's most troublesome diseases, but now is not the time to overlook the power of basic research, says a neuroscientist.
- Finally, the brain sensor that turns down the heat
At long last, researchers have zeroed in on the neurons that act as the brain's internal thermostat.
- Factors that might attract children to marijuana edibles
A new report identifies factors that make food attractive to children. Commissioned by the state Liquor and Cannabis Board, the report studied research on what makes food appeal to children and the role that marketing and branding play.
- Investigating the relationship between low physical activity and psychotic symptoms
Physical activity can help reduce cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in people with psychological problems. However, there is limited data on exercise in people with serious mental disorders, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This study explored whether complying with the World Health Organization recommendations of 150 minutes of moderate-vigorous exercise per week is related to psychotic symptoms or the diagnosis of a psychosis.
- Digital forms of dating violence are on the rise: What school nurses need to know
Many teens experience physical or sexual abuse within their romantic relationships and now dating violence can also be perpetrated digitally by harassing, stalking or controlling a romantic partner via technology and social media. School nurses are often some of the first to identify such problems and play an active role in preventing them from happening in the first place. Information on how school nurses can help these teens experiencing cyber abuse is described in a recent article.
- How telecommuting can cause leadership issues
Wherever your organization falls on the spectrum of telecommuting and virtual teams, new research reveals something about leadership and telecommuting that everyone should take into consideration.
- Virtual peer pressure works just as well as the real thing
Peer pressure is a proven social motivator. Researchers probed this decidedly human attribute and found that not only is virtual pressure from a computer-simulated peer just as motivating as the real thing, but that 'fake' competition is effective as well. Researchers formulated a mathematical model of human behavior that successfully predicted group responses across conditions -- one they hope researchers will use to overcome the difficult task of encouraging participation in scientific projects.
- Researchers find new role for cannabinoids in vision
A multidisciplinary team of researchers has improved our understanding of how cannabinoids, the active agent in marijuana, affect vision in vertebrates.
- Scientists map brain's action center
New research dispels long-held notions about the area of the brain involved in Parkinson's and addiction. The work delves into the anatomy and function of the striatum by employing cutting-edge strategies to comprehensively map one of the brain's lesser-known forms of organization.
- Memory activation before exposure reduces life-long fear of spiders
Many people suffer from anxiety and fears, and a common treatment for these problems is exposure therapy. In a new study, researchers have shown how the effect of exposure therapy can be improved by disrupting the recreation of fear-memories in people with arachnophobia.
- How PSD forms and why defects can cause autism
Scientists have discovered that SynGAP and PSD-95, two abundance proteins in PSD that are known to cause autism when mutated, can form an autonomously assembled network structure both in test-tube and in living cells. The SynGAP/PSD-95 assembly can form stable 'oil-like' droplets in the midst of aqueous cytoplasm of living cells via phase-transition. This finding provides a possible answer for PSD formation in the field of brain science.
- Opioid receptors outside the brain targeted in rats; new direction for painkillers
Opioid abuse is a growing public health crisis, affecting up to 36 million people worldwide. Many of these individuals first get hooked on prescription painkillers that target mu opioid receptors in the brain. A study in rats suggests that a different approach that targets delta opioid receptors on sensory neurons in peripheral tissues might avoid the side effects and high abuse potential of currently available pain relievers.
- New mouse model of Zika sexual transmission shows spread to fetal brain
The Zika virus, commonly transmitted through a bite from an infected mosquito, is also capable of leaping from person to person through sexual transmission. However, the mechanisms Zika uses to invade the body from the genitals, and the havoc it may wreak from there, are unclear. To better understand the process, a group of researchers has developed the first mouse model of a vaginal Zika infection.
- Going green is for girls, but branding can make men eco-friendly
Studies show that men are not as environmentally friendly as women. But could men be persuaded to go green? New research indicates the answer is yes — and it’s all about branding.
- Western diet increases Alzheimer's risk
Globally, about 42 million people now have dementia, with Alzheimer’s disease as the most common type of dementia. Rates of Alzheimer’s disease are rising worldwide. The most important risk factors seem to be linked to diet, especially the consumption of meat, sweets, and high-fat dairy products that characterize a Western Diet. The evidence of these risk factors, which come from ecological and observational studies, also shows that fruits, vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, legumes, and fish are associated with reduced risk.
- Smokers with newly discovered genetic markers have higher lung cancer risk
Researchers discovered new genetic markers associated with a fast rate of nicotine metabolism, which potentially leads smokers to smoke more, thereby, increasing their risk for lung cancer.
- What digital divide? Seniors embrace social technology
Contrary to popular belief, older adults enjoy emailing, instant messaging, Facebook and other forms of social technology. Not only that, but such online networking appears to reduce seniors' loneliness and even improve their health.
- How easy is it to spot a lie?
'Who broke Grandma's favorite vase?' As you listen to a chorus of 'I don't know' and 'Not me,' how will you determine the culprit? Conventional wisdom says, divide and conquer, but what does scientific research show us about questioning a group of people at one time?
- In the aftermath of disaster, social media helps build a sense of community
Social media can disseminate critical information as well as unite disaster victims during their recovery efforts, suggests a new study.
- The more we know, the easier we are to deceive
Knowing a lot about a subject means you are more likely to have false memories about it.
- Designing better ways to let go of digital memories than 'delete'
Researchers are looking at better ways of helping grieving people let go of emotionally-charged digital content after the death of loved ones or the break-up of relationships.
- Nerve cells with a sense of rhythm
The performances of our brain like thinking, remembering, perceiving and motion control can only arise through the interaction of the network of nerve cells. Now, neuroscientists show how nerve cells communicate with each other in neural networks.
- Elevating brain protein allays symptoms of Alzheimer's, improves memory
Scientists are testing a drug that could boost levels of critical protective protein in brain. In the study, the team conducted tests in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by raising the levels of one of two forms of neuregulin-1 in the hippocampus, an area of the brain responsible for learning and memory. Both forms of the protein seemed to improve performance on a test of spatial memory in the models.
- Breakthrough in understanding of brain development: Immune cell involvement revealed
Researchers have revealed that microglia -- cells involved in immune functions in the brain -- also influence brain connectivity and formation of new links between neurons in the developing brain. By directly contacting dendrites, they cause accumulation of Ca2+ and actin, leading to establishment of projections called filopodia. Filopodia then extend and seek out presynaptic terminals of other neurons, to create new synapses that form the basis of neuronal communication.
- Zika virus detected in newborn until 2 months after birth
Researchers outline the case of a baby born with Zika infection in January 2016, who remained infected by the virus even two months and one week after birth. This is the first reported case of prolonged Zika infection in newborns.
- We are all 'wired' for addiction, says researcher
Drug addicts and non-addicts may have more in common than ever thought, according to a researcher who found that to some degree, everyone’s brain is “wired” to become addicted.
- Mental stress may cause reduced blood flow in hearts of young women with heart disease
Mental stress may cause reduced blood flow in the heart muscle of younger women with heart disease. Younger women with heart disease are more susceptible to reduced blood flow from mental stress compared to men and older patients, new research has found.
- Late-onset asthma linked to increased heart disease, stroke risk
People diagnosed with asthma as adults may have an increased risk of developing heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular risk factors should be closely monitored in patients with late-onset asthma, researchers suggest.
- Biomarkers may help better predict who will have a stroke
People with high levels of four biomarkers in the blood may be more likely to develop a stroke than people with low levels of the biomarkers, according to a new study.
- THC in marijuana makes rats lazy, less willing to try cognitively demanding tasks
New research suggests there may be some truth to the belief that marijuana use causes laziness -- at least in rats.
- In unstable times, the brain reduces cell production to help cope
A new study found that adult rats with disruptions in their social hierarchy produced far fewer new neurons, and reacted to the surrounding upheaval by favoring the company of familiar rats. The research is among the first to show that adult brain-cell growth, or neurogenesis, shapes social behavior and adaptation, and that responses to instability may be more measured than scientists have come to expect.
- Study strengthens evidence that cognitive activity can reduce dementia risk
A formal bias analysis of previous studies finding that cognitive activities can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias concluded that any confounding factors in the earlier studies probably do not totally account for any associations between cognitive activity and dementia risk.
- Chew on this: How we believe our meat is raised can influence how it tastes
Our beliefs about how farm animals are raised -- whether on 'factory farms' or in more humane conditions -- can shape our meat-eating experience, from how we think it smells and tastes to how much we'd be willing to pay for it.
- Tipped out: Gratuities present challenges for restaurant operations
Tipping in restaurants is a widespread practice in need of reform, according to a new study. Investigators found that tipping poses significant challenges for restaurants, with managers seeing difficulties in hiring chefs and maintaining a cordial workplace environment. Surprisingly, servers welcomed changes to how tips are divvied up, even at the risk of less income.
- Smart helmet for football players may help detect concussions
A smart helmet that can help diagnose concussions in football players is being developed by medical students. Using the smart helmet, the team hopes players of all ages will be taken off the field immediately after a hit, instead of continuing to participate while injured.
- Concussions and brain injury: Can omega-3 intake aid in brain health recovery?
The treatment of concussions and traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a clinical challenge. Clinical studies thus far have failed to identify an effective treatment strategy when a combination of targets controlling aspects of neuroprotection, neuroinflammation, and neuroregeneration is needed. According to emerging science and clinical experience, aggressive intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) seems to be beneficial to TBI, concussion, and post-concussion syndrome patients.
- New research shows impact of Crohn's disease on brain function
Crohn's disease sufferers experience slower response times than matched individuals that do not have the disease, new research demonstrates.
- Majority of US doctors discussing electronic cigarettes with their patients
A new survey of US doctors reveals they are frequently discussing electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with patients in a clinical setting. A substantial proportion of physicians also recommend e-cigs to their patients who smoke despite some controversy around the devices.