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- Don't underestimate your mind's eye: Objects don't need to be seen to impact decision-making
Objects in our visual environment needn't be seen in order to impact decision making, according to new research. Take a look around, and what do you see? Much more than you think you do, thanks to your finely tuned mind's eye, which processes images without your even knowing.
- Computerized emotion detector
Face recognition software measures various parameters in a mug shot, such as the distance between the person's eyes, the height from lip to top of their nose and various other metrics and then compares it with photos of people in the database that have been tagged with a given name. Now, new research looks to take that one step further in recognizing the emotion portrayed by a face.
- The genetics of coping with HIV
We respond to infections in two fundamental ways. One is 'resistance,' where the body attacks the invading pathogen and reduces its numbers. Another, which is much less well understood, is 'tolerance,' where the body tries to minimize the damage done by the pathogen. A study using data from a large Swiss cohort of HIV-infected individuals gives us a glimpse into why some people cope with HIV better than others.
- Slowed processing speed linked with executive deficits in multiple sclerosis
A new study supports the role of slowed processing speed in the executive deficits found in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Following this study, experts say that MS cognitive research should focus on two key domains -- processing speed and memory.
- How learning to talk is in the genes
Researchers have found evidence that genetic factors may contribute to the development of language during infancy. Scientists discovered a significant link between genetic changes near the ROBO2 gene and the number of words spoken by children in the early stages of language development.
- Human faces are so variable because we evolved to look unique
Why are human faces so variable compared to other animals, from lizards and penguins to dogs and monkeys? Scientists analyzed human faces and the genes that code for facial features and found a high variability that could only be explained by selection for variable faces, probably because of the importance of social interactions in human relationships and the need for humans to be recognizable.
- Can consumers use an easy trick to extend wonderful experiences, shorten bad ones?
Many experiences rarely seem to last the right amount of time. Vacations feel too short, meetings seem too long, and bad dates never seem to end. A new study finds that simply categorizing experiences can help consumers extend good experiences and shorten the bad ones.
- Why are consumers willing to spend more money on ethical products?
What motivates consumers to make ethical choices such as buying clothing not made in a sweat shop, spending more money on fair-trade coffee, and bringing their own bags when they go shopping? According to a new study, ethical consumption is motivated by a need for consumers to turn their emotions about unethical practices into action.
- Do you always get what you pay for? How consumers mispredict product quality
Consumers are willing to spend thousands of dollars for luxury brand watches such as Rolex and Cartier because they are synonymous with high quality. But does this mean that inexpensive watches made by low-cost rivals must always be low quality? According to a new study, consumers mistakenly predict product quality based on quality consistency in other price ranges.
- Do ads showing sexy women make male consumers less charitable?
What happens when you use images of sexy women to attract men’s attention? According to a new study, male consumers who are shown images of sexy women feel less connected to other people and are less likely to purchase products advertised as benefiting others or make charitable contributions.
- Mobility in cancer patients with malignant spinal cord compression
Mobility is equally preserved in cancer patients suffering from malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) who receive a single dose of 10 Gy of radiation therapy (RT), compared to patients who receive five daily doses of 4 Gy of RT each, according to new research.
- We see art more as a person than an object: 'Magical contagion' spreads creator's essence to pieces
We see art more as a person than an object, according to new research. And in some cases, we make distinctions between artworks — say, an exact replica of a piece created by the artist, versus one created by a different artist. Art, in other words, is an extension of the creator.
- Neuroimaging technique identifies concussion-related brain disease in living brain
An experimental positron emission tomography (PET) tracer is effective in diagnosing concussion-related brain disease while a person is still alive. A new study suggests that an experimental radiolabeled compound, which is designed to latch onto a protein called tau that accumulates in the brain with repetitive blows to the head, can be registered on a PET scanner to effectively diagnose chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
- Exxon Valdez 2014: Does media coverage of humanmade disasters contribute to consumer complacency?
Twenty-five years ago, the Exxon Valdez spilled 11 million gallons of oil into Alaska’s Prince William Sound. Americans found themselves cleaning up another giant oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. According to a new study, news coverage of environmental disasters serves to calm our immediate anxieties instead of catalyzing changes in the way fossil fuels are used.
- Burnout caused by more than just job stress
Impossible deadlines, demanding bosses, abusive colleagues, unpaid overtime: all factors that can lead to a burnout. But when it comes to mental health in the workplace, the influence of home life must also be considered to get the full picture.
- Myth about Parkinson's disease debunked
Using advanced computer models, neuroscience researchers have gained new knowledge about the complex processes that cause Parkinson's disease. Scanning the brain of a patient suffering from Parkinson's disease reveals that in spite of dopamine cell death, there are no signs of a lack of dopamine -- even at a comparatively late stage in the process.
- Imaging identifies asymptomatic people at risk for stroke
Imaging can be a cost-effective way to identify people at risk for stroke who might benefit from aggressive intervention, according to a new modeling study. The study looked at people with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, a narrowing of the major blood vessels supplying blood to the head due to atherosclerosis, or plaque buildup. Carotid artery stenosis is the primary cause of up to 20 percent of ischemic strokes, which result from an obstruction within a blood vessel and make up 85 percent of all strokes.
- Smoking, schizophrenia linked by alterations in brain nicotine signals
Schizophrenia is associated with increased rates and intensity of tobacco smoking. A growing body of research suggests that the relationship between schizophrenia and smoking stems, in part, from an effort by patients to use nicotine to self-medicate symptoms and cognitive impairment associated with the disease. A new study sheds light on this hypothesis. The authors found that the level of nicotine receptors in the brain was lower in schizophrenia patients than in a matched healthy group.
- Sport, physical activity help against depression
Depression is the most frequently diagnosed mental illness. In the western industrial nations, at least every tenth person suffers from depression once in the course of their life. Depression influences physical health more than diabetes or arthritis, clinicians say. Treatment of depression traditionally occurs with antidepressants and psychotherapy. But as research has shown, sport and physical activity partially encounters the same neurophysiological changes as antidepressants.
- Brain scans used to forecast early reading difficulties
Researchers have used brain scans to predict how young children learn to read, giving clinicians a possible tool to spot children with dyslexia and other reading difficulties before they experience reading challenges.
- EEG study findings reveal how fear is processed in the brain
New research illustrates how fear arises in the brain when individuals are exposed to threatening images. This novel study is the first to separate emotion from threat by controlling for the dimension of arousal.
- Researcher develops, proves effectiveness of new drug for spinal muscular atrophy
Approximately one out of every 40 individuals in the United States is a carrier of the gene responsible for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), According to recent studies. This illness is a neurodegenerative disease that causes muscles to weaken over time. Now, researchers have made a recent breakthrough with the development of a new compound found to be highly effective in animal models of the disease.
- Number-crunching could lead to unethical choices, says new study
Calculating the pros and cons of a potential decision is a way of decision-making. But repeated engagement with numbers-focused calculations, especially those involving money, can have unintended negative consequences.
- Neuroscientists identify key role of language gene
Neuroscientists have found that a gene mutation that arose more than half a million years ago may be key to humans' unique ability to produce and understand speech.
- Concussions: 'Hidden injury' in sports
Two new studies shed light on the most common form of head injury seen in athletes. They suggest that concussions continue to be a 'hidden injury' in sports, even in the face significant increased public awareness.
- Web-based training can reduce campus rape, study concludes
Web-based training targeted at college-aged men is an effective tool for reducing the number of sexual assaults on U.S. campuses, according to a researcher. The RealConsent program reduced sexually violent behavior and increased the likelihood a male student would intervene to prevent a sexual assault, said one author.
- Combining epilepsy drug, morphine can result in less pain, lower opioid doses
Adding a common epilepsy drug to a morphine regimen can result in better pain control, fewer side effects and reduced morphine dosage, according to research. The result could bring significant relief to many patients with neuropathic pain, a difficult-to-treat condition often felt in the arms and legs and associated with nerve tissue damage.
- Slow to mature, quick to distract: ADHD brain study finds slower development of key connections
A peek inside the brains of more than 750 children and teens reveals a key difference in brain architecture between those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and those without. Kids and teens with ADHD, a new study finds, lag behind others of the same age in how quickly their brains form connections within, and between, key brain networks.
- Researchers urge psychologists to see institutional betrayal
Researchers are urging clinical psychologists to recognize experiences of institutional betrayal so that they can better treat their patients and respond in ways that help avoid or repair damaged trust when it occurs in their own institutions. Institutional betrayal is a dimensional phenomenon, with acts of omission and commission as well as instances of betrayal that may vary on how clearly systemic they are at the outset.
- Report urges individualized, cholesterol-targeted approach to heart disease, stroke
A recent guideline for using statins to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has wavered too far from the simple cholesterol goals that have saved thousands of lives in the past decade, and doesn't adequately treat patients as individuals, experts say.
- When rulers can't understand the ruled: Study finds significant gaps between Washington insiders, general Americans
A significant gap has been found in demographics, experience and partisanship between Washington insiders and the Americans they govern. "The elements of difference we have identified between the rulers and the ruled give us some reason to suspect that the two groups may not perceive the political world in the same way," the researchers write. "Taken together, these elements could well create a substantial cognitive and perceptual gulf between official and quasi-official Washington on the one hand and the American public on the other."
- Delay in age of walking can herald muscular dystrophy in boys with cognitive delays
The timing of a toddler's first steps is an important developmental milestone, but a slight delay in walking is typically not a cause of concern by itself. Now a duo of researchers has found that when walking and cognitive delays occur in concert, the combination could comprise the earliest of signals heralding a rare but devastating disorder known as Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
- Habitual Facebook users: Suckers for social media scams?
A new study finds that habitual use of Facebook makes individuals susceptible to social media phishing attacks by criminals, likely because they automatically respond to requests without considering how they are connected with those sending the requests, how long they have known them, or who else is connected with them.
- Like my body odor, like my politics: People are attracted to the body odor of others with similar political beliefs
A new study reveals that people find the smell of others with similar political opinions to be attractive, suggesting that one of the reasons why so many spouses share similar political views is because they were initially and subconsciously attracted to each other's body odor.
- When casualties increased, war coverage became more negative
As the number of U.S. casualties rose in Afghanistan, reporters filed more stories about the conflict and those articles grew increasingly negative about both the war effort and the military, according to a researcher.
- Caregivers of family members newly diagnosed with mental illness at risk for anxiety
Researchers who studied the emotional distress of caring for a family member diagnosed with a mental illness, found anxiety is high for the primary caregiver at the initial diagnosis or early in the course of the illness, and decreases over time.
- A thin line lies between fantasy and reality in people with psychopathic traits
New research indicates that people with psychopathic traits have a preference for nonromantic sexual fantasies with anonymous and uncommitted partners. The study's investigators noted that psychopathic sexual behavior is likely due to a preference for sexual activity outside a loving, committed relationship rather than only an inability to form such relationships.
- Largest ever study of awareness during general anesthesia identifies risk factors and consequences
Accidental awareness is one of the most feared complications of general anesthesia for both patients and anesthetists. Patients report this failure of general anesthesia in approximately 1 in every 19,000 cases, according to a new report. Known as accidental awareness during general anesthesia, it occurs when general anesthesia is intended but the patient remains conscious. This incidence of patient reports of awareness is much lower than previous estimates of awareness, which were as high as 1 in 600.
- Master regulator of cells' heat shock response found, pointing to new potential targets for neurodegenerative diseases and cancer
Heat shock proteins protect the molecules in all human and animal cells with factors that regulate their production and work as thermostats. In new research, scientists report for the first time that a protein called translation elongation factor eEF1A1 orchestrates the entire process of the heart shock response.
- This is your brain on snacks: Brain stimulation affects craving, consumption
Magnetic stimulation of a brain area involved in "executive function" affects cravings for and consumption of calorie-dense snack foods, reports a study. After stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), young women experience increased cravings for high-calorie snacks -- and eat more of those foods when given the opportunity, according to the researchers.
- Self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve reduces risk of major stroke and early death
In extended follow-up from a clinical trial, a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve was shown to have low rates of all-cause mortality and major stroke. Degenerative aortic stenosis is a progressive disease with a poor prognosis in the absence of surgical aortic valve replacement.
- Using cerebral protection device during transcatheter aortic valve replacement can cut number of cerebral lesions
A first-of-its kind study found that using a cerebral protection device during transcatheter aortic valve replacement can significantly reduce the number and volume of cerebral lesions in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis.
- Everyday discrimination impacts mental health
Researchers have determined that African Americans and Caribbean blacks who experience discrimination of multiple types are at substantially greater risk for a variety of mental disorders including anxiety, depression and substance abuse.
- Concept of time may predict impulsive behavior, research finds
Individuals with impulsive behaviors have poor timing abilities, a study finds. Researchers hope this finding will lead to behavioral interventions for clinical disorders like substance abuse and obesity that are linked to impulsive behavior.
- Young women involve parent in abortion when anticipating support
Pregnant teens will turn to parents and adults who are engaged in their lives and who will offer support, regardless of her pregnancy decision. Young women will avoid talking with parents who are less involved or may try to prevent them from seeking care, a study concludes.
- One in five men reports violence toward intimate partners
Intimate partner violence is more prevalent than diabetes, research shows. One in five men in the U.S. reports violence towards their spouse or significant other, says a new nationally-representative study. The analysis also found that male aggression toward a partner is associated with warning signs that could come up during routine health care visits, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and insomnia, in addition to better known risks like substance abuse and a history of either experiencing or witnessing violence as a child.
- To curb violent tendencies, start young
Aggressive children are less likely to become violent criminals or psychiatrically troubled adults if they receive intensive early intervention, says a new study based on more than two decades of research. The study provides some of the strongest evidence yet that violent tendencies can be curbed.
- Identifying a better message strategy for dissuading smokers: Add the positive
Which is more likely to convince a smoker to quit? The words, 'Warning: cigarettes cause cancer' beneath the image of an open mouth with a cancerous lesion and rotten teeth, or the same image with the words, 'Warning: Quitting smoking reduces the risk of cancer'? The answer depends on how confident you are in your ability to quit.
- Marijuana users who feel low get high
Adolescents and young adults who smoke marijuana frequently may attempt to manage negative moods by using the drug, according to a study. "One of the challenges is that people often may use marijuana to feel better but may feel worse afterward," the lead investigator says. "Marijuana use can be associated with anxiety and other negative states. People feel bad, they use, and they might momentarily feel better, but then they feel worse. They don't necessarily link feeling bad after using with the use itself, so it can become a vicious circle."
- Brain development in schizophrenia strays from normal path
Schizophrenia is generally considered to be a disorder of brain development and it shares many risk factors, both genetic and environmental, with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and intellectual disability. The normal path for brain development is determined by the combined effects of a complex network of genes and a wide range of environmental factors. However, longitudinal brain imaging studies in both healthy and patient populations are required in order to map the disturbances in brain structures as they emerge, researchers say.
- Autism: Change schools -- not students -- for more inclusive education
A study of Australian mothers’ attempts to access more appropriate schooling for their autistic children offers a new perspective on inclusive education policies and practices.
- Hypersensitivity to non-painful events may be part of pathology in fibromyalgia
New research shows that patients with fibromyalgia have hypersensitivity to non-painful events based on images of the patients’ brains, which show reduced activation in primary sensory regions and increased activation in sensory integration areas. Findings suggest that brain abnormalities in response to non-painful sensory stimulation may cause the increased unpleasantness that patients experience in response to daily visual, auditory and tactile stimulation.
- Schizophrenia not a single disease but multiple genetically distinct disorders
Schizophrenia isn’t a single disease but a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each with its own set of symptoms, research shows. The finding could be a first step toward improved diagnosis and treatment for the debilitating psychiatric illness.
- Measuring modified protein structures: New approach
A new approach has been developed to measure proteins with structures that change. This could enable new diagnostic tools for the early recognition of neurodegenerative diseases to be developed.
- Neural compensation in people with Alzheimer's-related protein
The human brain is capable of a neural workaround that compensates for the buildup of beta-amyloid, a destructive protein associated with Alzheimer's disease, researchers have discovered. The findings could help explain how some older adults with beta-amyloid deposits in their brain retain normal cognitive function while others develop dementia.
- Epilepsy breakthrough may lead to non-pharmacological therapies
A breakthrough in detecting early onset of refractory epilepsy in children will lead to effective treatment using non-pharmacological therapies, researchers say. 65 million people around the world today suffer from epilepsy, a condition of the brain that may trigger an uncontrollable seizure at any time, often for no known reason.
- Zebrafish model of a learning and memory disorder shows better way to target treatment
Using a zebrafish model of a human genetic disease called neurofibromatosis, researchers have found that the learning and memory components of the disorder are distinct features that will likely need different treatment approaches.
- Mindfulness protects adults' health from the impacts of childhood adversity
Adults who were abused or neglected as children are known to have poorer health, but adults who tend to focus on and accept their reactions to the present moment—or are mindful—report having better health, regardless of their childhood adversity, researchers report.
- Sleep disorders widely undiagnosed in individuals with multiple sclerosis
Widely undiagnosed sleep disorders may be at the root of the most common and disabling symptom of the disease: fatigue. This is the conclusion of what may be the largest study of sleep problems among individuals with multiple sclerosis, researchers report.
- High-dose opioid prescribing continues to climb in Canada
High-dose opioid prescribing increased by 23 percent in Canada between 2006 and 2011, despite clinical guidelines recommending that most patients should avoid high-doses of these drugs, according to new research.