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- Replication project investigates self-control as limited resource
A new research replication project, involving 24 labs and over 2,100 participants, failed to reproduce findings from a previous study that suggested that self-control is a depletable resource.
- Fish oil vs. lard: Why some fat can help or hinder your diet
A diet high in saturated fat can make your brain struggle to control what you eat, says a new study. Consuming fish oil instead of lard can make a significant difference, the study shows.
- The heart-brain connection: The link between LQTS and seizures
Patients carrying certain mutations that cause Long QT Syndrome, a rare cardiac rhythm disorder, have an increased risk for developing seizures and have more severe cardiac symptoms.
- Florida investigation links four recent Zika cases to local mosquito-borne virus transmission
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been informed by the State of Florida that Zika virus infections in four people were likely caused by bites of local Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The cases are likely the first known occurrence of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States. CDC is closely coordinating with Florida officials who are leading the ongoing investigations, and at the state's request, sent a CDC medical epidemiologist to provide additional assistance.
- Transit and training crucial to connecting unemployed with jobs
The mismatch between unemployed workers and job vacancies is a serious problem in the Twin Cities region and it appears to have worsened since the turn of the millennium, new research indicates. The biggest concentrations of unemployed workers lack fast or frequent transit service to some of the richest concentrations of job vacancies, particularly vacancies in the south and southwest metro.
- Adolescent exposure to drugs, alcohol fuels use in adulthood
Teenagers who have easy access to drugs and alcohol in the home are more likely to drink and do drugs in their early and late 20s. That's according to the one of the first studies to look at how adolescent exposure to illegal substances affects patterns of abuse in adulthood.
- Cognitive ability varies, but prejudice is universal
A new study shows both high and low cognitive ability have distinct prejudices against particular groups.
- Virtual brain helps decrypt epilepsy
A virtual brain has been created that can reconstitute the brain of a person affected by epilepsy for the first time. From this work we understand better how the disease works and can also better prepare for surgery, say scientists.
- Breastfeeding associated with better brain development, neurocognitive outcomes
A new study, which followed 180 pre-term infants from birth to age seven, found that babies who were fed more breast milk within the first 28 days of life had had larger volumes of certain regions of the brain at term equivalent and had better IQs, academic achievement, working memory, and motor function.
- Psychiatry on closed and open wards: The suicide risk remains the same
In psychiatric clinics with an exclusively open-door policy, the risk of patients committing suicide or absconding from treatment is no higher than in clinics with locked wards. This has been demonstrated in a large study in which around 350,000 cases were analyzed over a period of 15 years.
- Should crime victims call the police?
New research finds that individuals who report being victims of crime to police are less likely to become future victims of crime than those who do not report their initial experiences.
- Maintaining healthy relationships: Studies identify a promising way
Thinking about the future helps overcome relationship conflicts, according to a study. The research also, say the researchers, has potential implications for understanding how prospection, or future-thinking, can be a beneficial strategy for a variety of conflicts people experience in their everyday lives.
- Why brain neurons in Parkinson's disease stop benefiting from levodopa
Though the drug levodopa can dramatically improve Parkinson's disease symptoms, within five years one-half of the patients using L-DOPA develop an irreversible condition -- involuntary repetitive, rapid and jerky movements. UAB researchers have uncovered an essential mechanism of long-term memory for L-DOPA-induced-dyskinesia: widespread reorganization of DNA methylation, and this may be a therapeutic target to prevent or reverse dyskinesia.
- The feel of food
Some people love avocados. Others hate them. For many of the latter, the fruit's texture is the source of their intense dislike. What gives? A team of biologists has now discovered the cellular mechanism through which fruit flies sense food texture.
- No dream: Electric brain stimulation during sleep can boost memory
For the first time, scientists report using transcranial alternating current stimulation, or tACS, to target a specific kind of brain activity during sleep and strengthen memory in healthy people.
- In France, hiring biases slightly favor women in male-dominated STEM fields
Women enjoy a slight advantage over men when applying to become science teachers in France, a new study suggests.
- Study shows distress intolerance associated with opioid misuse
Inability to manage negative emotional and somatic stress is associated with opioid misuse in adults with chronic pain, according to new research.
- Music makes beer taste better
Music can influence how much you like the taste of beer, according to a new study.
- Brain changes after menopause may lead to lack of physical activity
Researchers have found a connection between lack of ovarian hormones and changes in the brain's pleasure center, a hotspot in the brain that processes and reinforces messages related to reward, pleasure, activity and motivation for physical exercise. Findings suggest that activation of brain receptors in that part of the brain may serve as a future treatment to improve motivation for physical activity in postmenopausal women.
- Why do antidepressants take so long to work?
An episode of major depression can be crippling, impairing the ability to sleep, work, or eat. But the drugs available to treat depression can take weeks or even months to start working. Researchers have discovered one reason the drugs take so long to work, and their finding could help scientists develop faster-acting drugs in the future.
- Websites with history can be just as conversational as chatting with a person
A website with search and interaction history can be just as engaging as chatting with an online human agent, or robot helper, according to researchers.
- New research adds evidence on potential treatments targeting amyloid beta in Alzheimer's
New research could provide additional clues for future treatment targets to delay Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, according to the group's latest findings.
- Zika virus challenges for neuropsychiatry
The Zika virus led the World Health Organization to declare the outbreak a global public health emergency in February 2016, but how much is really known about its neurobiology and potential neuropsychiatric manifestations?
- Photopharmacology and optogenetics: Lighting the way for second messengers
Scientist have created photosensitive mimics of a class of signaling molecules, thus enabling their actions to be regulated by light, and affording new insights into the communications networks that control cellular metabolism.
- 'Pain paradox' discovery provides route to new pain control drugs
A natural substance known to activate pain in the central nervous system has been found to have the opposite effect in other parts of the body, potentially paving the way to new methods of pain control.
- Creativity, intermedial languages as bridge to communicate with autistic children
This pioneering research using drama with autistic children started with an Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project 'Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for Autistic Spectrum Conditions' (2011-2014) working in special schools and has now extended to working with families
- Recovery of dopamine function emerges with recovery from smoking
A new study reports that smoking-related deficits in brain dopamine, a chemical implicated in reward and addiction, return to normal three months after quitting. The normalization of dopamine systems suggests smoking-related deficits are a consequence of chronic smoking, rather than a risk factor. These findings raise the possibility that treatments might be developed that normalize the dopamine system in smokers.
- Smartphone exercises for a better mood
Brief, directed smartphone exercises can help quickly improve our mood.
- Brain areas altered during hypnotic trances identified
By scanning the brains of subjects while they were hypnotized, researchers were able to see the neural changes associated with hypnosis.
- Study finds couples' division of paid, unpaid labor linked to risk of divorce
Financial factors, including couples' overall resources and wives' ability to support themselves in the event of a divorce, are not predictive of whether marriages last. Rather, it is couples' division of labor -- paid and unpaid -- that is associated with the risk of divorce.
- A sage discovery: Plant-derived compounds have potent anti-inflammatory effects
New research reveals that two specific plant-derived compounds may be effective for fighting inflammation and pain.
- Adolescent drinking damages later verbal learning and memory performance
Adolescence is both a time of rapid neurobiological changes and of the initiation of drinking – alcohol is the most commonly used substance among students in grades eight to 12. Binge-drinking effects are particularly concerning, although it is unclear whether and how much it affects neurocognitive performance. This study looked at two questions: first, whether moderate, binge, or extreme-binge drinking in adolescence had an impact on later performance in tests of verbal learning and memory (VLM); and second, whether the amount of alcohol consumed is associated with specific changes in learning and memory during six years of adolescence.
- A minute of secondhand marijuana smoke may damage blood vessels: Study in rats
Rats' blood vessels took at least three times longer to recover function after only a minute of breathing secondhand marijuana smoke, compared to recovery after a minute of breathing secondhand tobacco smoke. With many states legalizing medical and recreational marijuana, and possible corporate expansion within the cannabis industry, this type of research is important to help understand the health consequences of exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke, researchers said.
- Indicators of Parkinson's disease risk found in unexpected places
Clues that point toward new risk mechanisms for developing Parkinson's disease are hiding in some unusual spots, according to a new study.
- New model may help solve the mystery of how lithium stabilizes moods
New model provides a fresh perspective that can sharpen research aimed at pinning down lithium's biochemical targets and guide design of new treatments of mood disorders that are as effective as lithium but with fewer side effects.
- The brain’s super-sensitivity to curbs
Humans rely on boundaries like walls and curbs for navigation, and researchers have pinpointed the areas of the brain most sensitive to even the tiniest borders.
- Even thinking about marriage gets young people to straighten up
You don't have to get married to settle down and leave behind your wild ways -- you just have to expect to get married soon.
- Photos capture challenges for teens with autism, show animals as resource
Through use of photographs, adolescents with ASD were able to share their accounts of difficulties transitioning out of school, their struggles with socialization and how they use animals as a source of companionship, a new study has demonstrated.
- Stroke Care: Randomized penumbra 3-D trial of next generation stent retriever meets primary endpoints
The Penumbra 3D Trial successfully met the primary trial endpoints, demonstrating non-inferiority in both safety and efficacy of the company's next-generation stent retriever, Penumbra 3D Revascularization Device, when used with Penumbra System aspiration devices compared to Penumbra System aspiration devices alone.
- Seeing structure that allows brain cells to communicate
For more than a century, neuroscientists have known that nerve cells talk to one another across the small gaps between them, a process known as synaptic transmission. But the details of how this crucial aspect of brain function occurs have remained elusive. Now, new research has for the first time elucidated details about the architecture that allows brain cells to communicate.
- Resveratrol appears to restore blood-brain barrier integrity in Alzheimer's disease
Resveratrol, given to Alzheimer's patients, appears to restore the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, reducing the ability of harmful immune molecules secreted by immune cells to infiltrate from the body into brain tissues, say researchers. The reduction in neuronal inflammation slowed the cognitive decline of patients, compared to a matching group of placebo-treated patients with the disorder.
- Stroke patients heading directly to endovascular centers could get treatment faster
Time is critical when it comes to ischemic stroke treatment: Patients need to receive certain treatments within six hours to maximize their chances of the best possible outcome. A new study assessed the real world delivery to care, specific causes of treatment delays and time lost due to interhospital transfers.
- ADHD medication reduces risky behavior in children, teens, research finds
New research provides some of the first evidence that medications taken by millions of American children to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder offer long-term benefits.
- Common brain changes found in children with autism, ADHD and OCD
A team of scientists has found similarities in brain impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. The study involved brain imaging of white matter in 200 children.
- After-hours email expectations negatively impact employee well-being
A new study finds a link between organizational after-hours email expectations and emotional exhaustion, which hinders work-family balance. The results suggest that modern workplace technologies may be hurting the very employees that those technologies were designed to help.
- The eyes are the window into the brain
Insight into how neurons in the cerebellum respond to rapid eye movements may provide clues for modern medical technology.
- Faces aren't always to be believed when it comes to honesty
Researchers have determined that certain facial features, not the expression, influence whether people think someone is trustworthy. Two studies have determined that people often make judgments of trustworthiness based solely on the face.
- Vitamin D levels predict risk of brain decline in Chinese elderly
Low vitamin D levels has been associated with increased subsequent risk of cognitive decline and impairment in the Chinese elderly, a new study shows.
- More evidence in quest to repurpose cancer drugs for Alzheimer's disease
An FDA approved drug to treat renal cell carcinoma appears to reduce levels of a toxic brain protein linked to dementia in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases when given to animals. This finding is the latest from a group of researchers examining tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
- Treating pain without feeding addiction: Study shows promise of non-drug pain management
A new study shows the potential for patients who have both addiction issues and chronic pain to get relief from an approach that combines behavioral therapy and social support to help them manage their pain without painkillers that carry an addiction risk. The low-cost approach, grounded in psychological theories of pain, could help address the nation's epidemic of addictions to opioid painkillers and illicit drugs.
- EEG scans could help diagnose awareness in patients with a disorder of consciousness
New research suggests that an electroencephalogram could be a strong indicator of the level of awareness of patients in a vegetative state after a severe brain injury.
- All e-cigarettes emit harmful chemicals, but some emit more than others
While previous studies have found that electronic cigarettes emit toxic compounds, a new study has pinpointed the source of these emissions and shown how factors such as the temperature, type, and age of the device play a role in emission levels, information that could be valuable to both manufacturers and regulators seeking to minimize the health impacts of these increasingly popular devices.
- Witnesses confuse innocent and guilty suspects with 'unfair' lineups
Police lineups in which distinctive individual marks or features are not altered can impair witnesses' ability to distinguish between innocent and guilty suspects, according to new research.
- Neural circuits involved in making risky decisions identified
New research sheds light on what's going on inside our heads as we decide whether to take a risk or play it safe. Scientists located a region of the brain involved in decisions made under conditions of uncertainty, and identified some of the cells involved in the decision-making process. The work could lead to treatments for psychological and psychiatric disorders that involve misjudging risk, such as problem gambling and anxiety disorders, say the researchers.
- First field trial supports removing transgender diagnosis from mental disorders chapter within WHO classification
It would be appropriate to remove the diagnosis of transgender from its current classification as a mental disorder, according to a study conducted in Mexico City. The study is the first field trial to evaluate a proposed change to the place of the diagnosis within the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD).
- Workforce processes prior to mechanical thrombectomy vary widely, new study finds
Mechanical thrombectomy, a leading type of neurointerventional stroke treatment where a device can remove a blood clot in minutes, is essential for people experiencing a stroke, who stand to lose 2 million neurons every minute the artery is blocked. Equally essential is access to a hospital or health care system with a successful workflow in place that can deliver such treatment.
- Flow diversion improves vision among patients with paraclinoid aneurysms
Aneurysms of the paraclinoid region of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the interventions used to treat them often result in visual impairment. Researchers, however, found that flow diversion demonstrates a higher rate of visual improvement and a lower rate of visual decline in patients with these types of aneurysms.
- Genetic factors are responsible for creating anatomical patterns in the brain cortex
The highly consistent anatomical patterning found in the brain's cortex is controlled by genetic factors.
- Research tracks interplay of genes and environment on physical, educational outcomes
Over the course of the 20th century, genes began to play a greater role in the height and body mass index (BMI) of Americans, while their significance decreased in educational outcomes and occurrence of heart disease.
- Health insurance coverage is associated with lower odds of alcohol use by pregnant women
Researchers have studied the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women in the US, and whether there were differences according to pregnancy status. The findings showed that pregnant women with insurance coverage had lower odds of alcohol use in the past month; however the odds of tobacco use were not affected. For non-pregnant women, insurance coverage resulted in higher odds of alcohol use but lower odds of using tobacco.